Chapter 34 reading quiz
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Chapter 34 Reading Quiz. The deuterostome branch has two modern phyla: the chordates & the ____________. List the four anatomical features that characterize the Phylum Chordata. (4 point question). 1. Describe the four unique characteristics of chordates.

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Chapter 34 Reading Quiz

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Chapter 34 reading quiz

Chapter 34 Reading Quiz

  • The deuterostome branch has two modern phyla: the chordates & the ____________.

  • List the four anatomical features that characterize the Phylum Chordata. (4 point question)


1 describe the four unique characteristics of chordates

1. Describe the four unique characteristics of chordates.

  • Notochord  flexible rod located between the gut and nerve cord

  • Dorsal hollow nerve cord  where the brain & spinal cord develop

  • Pharyngeal slits  similar to gills, allows water through mouth to exit before digestive system

  • Muscular postanal tail 


2 distinguish between the three subphyla of the phylum chordata and give examples of each

2. Distinguish between the three subphyla of the phylum Chordata and give examples of each.

  • Urochordata  tunicates

    - are filter feeders and sessile

  • Cephalochordata  lancelets

    - all 4 characteristics persist into adulthood

  • Vertebrates  any animal with a backbone

    - have a greater degree of cephalization 


Chapter 34 reading quiz

3. Describe the specialized characteristics found in the subphylum Vertebrata and explain how each is beneficial to survival.

  • Neural crest  helps with formation of certain skeletal components

  • Cephalization  sensory organs on anterior end for quicker processing

  • Vertebral column  support and strong anchor – basic skeleton

  • Closed circulatory system  heart, arteries, capillaries, veins 


4 compare and contrast members of agnatha placadermi and chondrichthyes

4. Compare and contrast members of Agnatha, Placadermi, and Chondrichthyes.

  • Agnatha  jawless fishes (400-500 mya)

    - lampreys, hagfishes, about 60 species

  • Placadermi  now extinct, has paired fins and hinged jaws

  • Chondrichthyes  750 species

    - sharks, skates, and rays

    - skeletons of cartilage, well-developed jaws, paired fins, lateral line system

    - sexual reproduction with internal fertilization 


5 explain how members of the class osteichthyes have become so diversified

5. Explain how members of the class Osteichthyes have become so diversified.

  • 30,000 species

  • They spread from freshwater to marine and back at some point

  • Swim bladders

  • Maneuverable swimmers

  • Lobe-finned

  • Lungfishes

  • Ray-finned fishes 


6 summarize the evidence supporting the fact that amphibians evolved from crossopterygians

6. Summarize the evidence supporting the fact that amphibians evolved from crossopterygians.

  • Evolved from lobe-finned fishes (skeletal structure)

  • Anatomical similarities

  • Molecular data suggests close relation to lungfishes 


7 distinguish between the three orders of living amphibians

7. Distinguish between the three orders of living amphibians.

  • Urodela  salamanders, 400 species

  • Anura  frogs and toads, 3500 species

  • Apoda  caecilians (legless & blind), 150 species 


Chapter 34 reading quiz

8. List the distinguishing characteristics of members of the class Reptilia and explain any special adaptations to the terrestrial environment.

  • Scales prevent desiccation & dehydration

  • Gas exchange via lungs

  • Dioecious with sexual reproduction and internal fertilization

    - most are oviparous and produce an amniotic egg

  • Ectotherms  use behavioral adaptations to absorb solar energy and regulate body temperature

    - can survive on less than 10% calories of that of mammals 


9 explain how environmental changes during the cretaceous period may have affected the dinosaurs

9. Explain how environmental changes during the Cretaceous Period may have affected the dinosaurs.

  • The climate became cooler and more variable and mass extinctions occurred

  • A few survived into the early Cenozoic, but all these reptiles were gone by the end of the Cretaceous (65 mya) 


Chapter 34 reading quiz

10. List the distinguishing characteristics of members of the class Aves and explain any special adaptations for flight.

  • Each part of bird anatomy is modified in some way that enhances flight

  • Bones with honeycombed internal structure

  • No teeth, a gizzard

  • Endothermic and insulated (feathers)

  • 4 chambered heart with efficient lungs

  • Well-developed nervous system

  • Dioecious with sexual reproduction and internal fertilization 


11 summarize the evidence supporting the fact that birds evolved from reptilian ancestors

11. Summarize the evidence supporting the fact that birds evolved from reptilian ancestors.

  • Possess distinct reptilian characteristics such as the amniotic egg and scales on legs

  • Common ancestor Archaeopteryx lithographica

    - clawed forelimbs, teeth, long tail, feathers

    - not considered direct ancestor to modern birds but a side branch

  • Birds arose from a theropod ancestor 


12 explain why mammals underwent an adaptive radiation during the cenozoic

12. Explain why mammals underwent an adaptive radiation during the Cenozoic.

  • 4500 species

  • The extinction of the dinosaurs and fragmentation of continents opened new adaptive zones at the end of the Mesozoic era 


13 distinguish between monotreme marsupial and placental mammals

13. Distinguish between monotreme, marsupial, and placental mammals.

  • Monotreme  egg laying, hair, milk

    - found in Australia

    - Ex: platypus, spiny echidna

  • Marsupials  young are born early and finish development in pouch, attached to teat

    - mostly Australia

    - Ex: kangaroos, opossum, koala

  • Placental  uterus, placenta, live birth

    - also called “eutherian” 


Chapter 34 reading quiz

14. Explain how convergent evolution produced marsupial and placental ecological counterparts on different continents.

  • Marsupials and placentals diverged from a common ancestor about 80 – 100 mya

  • Adaptive radiation during the late Cretaceous and early Tertiary periods (70 – 45 mya) produced the orders of extant placental mammals 


15 compare and contrast the four main evolutionary lines of placental mammals

15. Compare and contrast the four main evolutionary lines of placental mammals.

  • Chiroptera & Insectivora  bats and shrews, modified forelimbs


Chapter 34 reading quiz

  • Lagomorpha, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, Sirenia, Proboscidea

    - rabbits, odd-toed and even-toed ungulates, sea cows (manatees), and elephants

    - medium herbivores 


Chapter 34 reading quiz

  • Carnivora  cats, dogs, sea lions, etc

  • Primates & Rodentia  rats, squirrels, beavers; monkeys, apes, humans


Chapter 34 reading quiz

16. Describe the characteristics found in early primates which indicate an arboreal (tree-living) existence.

  • Limber shoulder joints which allow swinging

  • Dexterous hands for hanging and manipulating food

  • Sensitive fingers with nails, not claws

  • Eyes close together for good depth perception (to swing)

  • Excellent hand-eye coordination

  • Parental care with usual single births and long nurturing of offspring 


17 appraise the significance of the three most prominent misconceptions about human evolution

17. Appraise the significance of the three most prominent misconceptions about human evolution.

  • Our ancestors were chimpanzees or other modern apes

    actual: they represent 2 divergent branches of the anthropoid lineage evolved from a common, less specialized ancestor

  • Human evolution represents a ladder with a series of steps leading directly from an ancestral anthropoid to Homo sapiens

    actual: progressively have become more modern, many branches and dead ends along the way

  • Various human characteristics like posture and brain evolved in unison

    actual: mosaic evolution  different things evolved at different times 


18 diagram and evolutionary tree for humans

18. Diagram and evolutionary tree for humans.

  • First of all: it is uncertain

  • Humans and apes diverged 6 – 8 mya from a common African anthropoid

  • Australopithecus africanus erect, teeth & hands like ours, 1/3 the brain, about 3 – 4 mya

  • Australopithecus afarensis  “Lucy”, 1m tall, upright

  • A. anamensis

  • A. ramidus

  • Homo habilis  coexisted with Australopithecus

  • H. erectus  1.8 mya – 250,000; taller, larger brain, Neanderthals

  • H. sapiens  out of Africa 


19 explain how humans have influenced the extinction rates of other organisms

19. Explain how humans have influenced the extinction rates of other organisms.

  • Humans are the most numerous and widespread of the large animals

     rate of extinctions this century is 50x greater than the average for the past 100,000 years

     due mostly to habitat destruction, chemical pollution, overpopulation

     temperature increase, alteration of world climate, fossil fuel consumption

     especially rain forests (effect on species & world)

  • Homo sapiens may be the most devastating crisis in the history of life 


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