The future of nuclear energy in france
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THE FUTURE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN FRANCE. Anouk Darcet-Felgen, BMH Avocats, Paris AEEC, 23 November 2009, Brussels. I. FACTS. France is second largest producer of nuclear energy in the world, after the United States, followed by Japan 59 nuclear power plants in use with a total power of 63 GW

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THE FUTURE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN FRANCE

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The future of nuclear energy in france

THE FUTURE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN FRANCE

Anouk Darcet-Felgen, BMH Avocats, Paris

AEEC, 23 November 2009, Brussels


The future of nuclear energy in france

I. FACTS

  • France is second largest producer of nuclear energy in the world, after the United States, followed by Japan

  • 59 nuclear power plants in use with a total power of 63 GW

  • 78 % of electricity are produced by nuclear energy

  • France produces 50% of the energy consumed on its territory

  • France has one of the lowest carbon output rates among the OECD countries

  • 100 000 jobs


Reference costs for electricity generation

Reference Costs for Electricity Generation

  • From the point of view of an investor, nuclear is the most competitive system for generating base-load electricity


Ii legal framework

II. LEGAL FRAMEWORK

  • Statute No. 2006-686 of June 13th 2006 on the Transparency and Security in the Nuclear Field

  • Statute No. 2006-739 of June 28th 2006 on the Sustainable Management of Radioactive Materials and Waste, codified in articles L. 542-1 and following in the French Environmental Code

  • Amendment brought to Statute No. 68-943 of October 30th 1968 in its consolidated version of June 14th 2006 on the Civil Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

  • Council Directive 2007/117/Euratom of 20 November 2006 on the supervision and control of shipments of radioactive waste and spent fuel

  • Council Directive 2009/71/Euratom of 25 June 2009 establishing a Community framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear installations

  • Statute No. 2009-967 of August 3rd 2009 on the implementation of the “Grenelle de l’environnement”


Iii the actors

III. THE ACTORS


Iv the issues at stake

IV. THE ISSUES AT STAKE

  • Generation III+ : EPR reactor

  • More power

  • Less Waste generated

  • PERFORMANCE

Modern nuclear technology:


Management of radioactive waste

MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

  • Low-level waste is stored in disposal facilities for radioactive substances, like Morvilliers site in the region of Aube

  • Low-level and intermediate-level waste is stored at the Soulaine-Dhuys site (studies in the field of low-level long-lived waste disposal in subsurface repositories are currently being developed)

  • PROBLEM OF ILW/HLW LONG-LIVED WASTE MANAGEMENT

  • Former “Bataille Act” of December 30th 1991 established 3 branches of research to be achieved before 2006:

    - separation and transmutation of long-lived radioactive elements,

    - reversible and irreversible storage possibilities in deep geological formations,

    - long term packaging and warehousing surface processes


The future of nuclear energy in france

  • New Statute of June 28th 2006 establishes research tasks in the fields of

    - separation and transmutation of long-lived radioactive elements,

    - reversible disposal in deep geological formations and

    - storage

  • Deep geological formations considered as INB (Basic Nuclear Installations) and follow a special authorisation procedure under article L. 542-10-1 of the French environmental code

     The authorisation will be granted exclusively on the basis of a new statute (to be adopted) fixing the conditions of reversibility


B financial cost

B. FINANCIAL COST

  • A 20 years life-extension of all operating stations would be 10 times less expensive than building a EPR-type station

  • The cost of decommissioning an operating station is evaluated to 15% of the initial investment. This cost has been integrated into the electricity price by EDF.

  • The transition from old to new stations has to be planned on a 20 to 30 years period.


V life extention

V. LIFE-EXTENTION

  • The Nuclear Safety Authority

  • No regulatory lifetime for a nuclear station:

    • Periodic Safety Review (every 10 years)

    • Any operating station may be stopped at any time

  • “Technical” lifetime

    • Foreseeable phenomena

    • Unforeseeable phenomena

  • Safety reassessment by the operator himself

A. NUCLEAR SAFETY SUPERVISION IN FRANCE


B the state of the operating stations

B. THE STATE OF THE OPERATING STATIONS

  • Average age of French nuclear stations: 23.5

  • ASN’s opinion after inspections in 2008 : satisfactory

  • Life-extension until the age of 40 at least

    • Overall approval

    • Each station still has to be inspected, starting with Tricastin 1 and Fessenheim

  • Average annual amount of inspections per station: 25


Vi building new stations

VI. BUILDING NEW STATIONS

  • Public debate and local public inquiry

  • Decree No. 2007-534 of April 10th 2007

  • The construction began in 2006 and was scheduled to last 54 months

  • Safety problems criticised by ASN

  • Costs: € 4 billion

A. FIRST EPR-REACTOR IN FRANCE: FLAMANVILLE


B second epr project with gdf suez

B. SECOND EPR-PROJECT WITH GDF-SUEZ

  • Location: Penly

  • Involved companies:

    • EDF (5O%)

    • GDF-Suez (25%)

    • Total (12,5%)

    • Enel (12,5%)

  • The construction is scheduled to start in 2012 and the plant to be operational in 2017.


Conclusion

CONCLUSION

  • Opting-out has never been an option for France.

  • On the contrary, France:

    • has developed the EPR technology and is deeply involved in the development of the IPR technology,

    • is building a new EPR and planning the construction of a second one with the participation of new actors.

  • The operating stations are only about to reach the age of 30.

    There is a general agreement on a life extension of another 10 years and no impediment to extend for a longer period.


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