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Gender and The Media. Gender as Social Construction. Today:. Lecture/Discussion on Gendered Media View part of Mickey Mouse Monopoly and additional clips. Clips. Tough Guise Analysis of Modern Family Episode Miss Representation Beyonce video, Rush video, ad examples

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Gender and The Media

Gender as Social Construction


Today:

  • Lecture/Discussion on Gendered Media

  • View part of Mickey Mouse Monopoly and additional clips


Clips

  • Tough Guise

  • Analysis of Modern Family Episode

  • Miss Representation

  • Beyonce video, Rush video, ad examples

  • Mickey Mouse Monopoly clips and discussion


Gendered Media

  • Media advances representations of gendered and racial identities

  • What does it mean to be male? Female?

  • Media have progressive and regressive tendencies- What does this mean? Examples?

  • Media content can be challenged and changed. Should it? How could it?


Media Influences

  • Surveys show most think media affect others but not themselves

  • Media culture provides models of what means to be male or female

  • Media advance ideals of what is desirable in women and men


Do men/women use media differently?

  • How do boys use media?

  • How do girls use media?


Gendered Media Use

  • Differences in how women and men tend to view media

  • Boys and men use primarily for instrumental purposes

    • More likely to read papers and watch TV to get news

    • Use Internet to gather information

    • Use to accomplish tasks


Gendered Media Use

  • Girls and women often use media to build relationships

  • Perceive social media as allowing them to express themselves

  • More likely to blog, etc.


Gendered Media Use

  • We use media as platforms for discussing and sometimes challenging cultural expectations for femininity and masculinity

  • Young people use media as means of taking their culture apart and remixing it

  • Beyonce Lies http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p72UqyVPj54


Tell Us What’s Important

  • Early theories of media’s influence likened to hypodermic needle

    • Theory too simplistic


Tell Us What’s Important

  • More sophisticated approach is agenda setting

    • Media set our agenda by telling us what’s important

      • Have ability to direct audience’s attention to issues

      • Focus our attention


Tell Us What’s Important

  • “Gatekeeper” – people and groups that control which messages get through to audiences


Tell Us What’s Important

  • In early days of radical feminism, media portrayed feminists as man-hating, bra-burning extremists

  • Coverage of women ignores substantive issues.


Tell Us What’s Important

  • TV and radio programs tend to negatively portray women who are identified as feminists

  • Is this true? Can you think of examples?

  • Sandra Fluke:TC3:57

  • http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/02/29/rush-limbaugh-sandra-fluke-slut_n_1311640.html


  • Palin vs. Hillary?

  • How are each represented?

  • SNL Palin Clinton Skit

  • http://www.hulu.com/watch/34465


Tell Us What Are/ Should Be

  • Media present us with images of what women and men are and should be

  • What kind of images are those?


Portray Men Stereotypically

  • Men on prime-time television independent, aggressive, in-charge

  • Portrayed as sexually active and not responsible


Portray Men Stereotypically

  • Reality TV portrays men in traditional, stereotyped ways

    • Macho man proves manliness by degrading women

      • Not only advances degrading images of women, but portray men as immature and insensitive


Portray Men Stereotypically

  • White masculinity remains norm

  • Hip hop and rap music – exception


Portray Men Stereotypically

  • Men seldom shown nurturing others

  • Portray men as incompetent at homemaking, cooking, child care

  • What to expect when expecting

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J9v_kZLQp9M


Portray Men Stereotypically

  • Media offer some more complex portrayals of men

    • Male characters combine qualities traditionally associated with masculinity and femininity


Portray Men Stereotypically

  • Contradictory images of masculinity embodied by rock and rap artists

    • Some rappers uphold traditional images of men, women relationships


Portray Women Stereotypically

  • Portray girls and women in ways consistent with traditional stereotype

  • Media aimed at youth show female characters shopping, grooming, being emotional, and engaging in domestic activities


Portray Women Stereotypically

  • Show male characters working, building, fighting, thinking

  • Increased trend to portray women and girls in highly sexualized ways


Portray Women Stereotypically

  • Most traditional stereotype is woman as sex object

  • Ideal is young and extremely thin and preoccupied with men, children, shopping

  • Even newscasters are young, attractive, less outspoken


Portray Women Stereotypically

  • Pornification of mainstream media

  • Encourage girls to model themselves after hypersexualized female characters

  • Send message girls and women responsible for consequences of sexual activity


Portray Women Stereotypically

  • Makeover reality shows reinforce traditional views of women and what makes women desirable


Portray Women Stereotypically

  • Media favor two opposite prototypes

    • Good

    • Bad


Portray Women Stereotypically

  • Good women

    • Pretty, deferential, faithful, focused on home and family

  • Bad women

    • Witch, bitch, whore, iron maiden


Portray Women Stereotypically

  • Criteria for good woman have been challenged in some recent films and TV shows

  • If we look closely at some nontraditional images of women, we see she meet traditional stereotypes of femininity


Portray Women Stereotypically

  • Trend of combining traditional and nontraditional images of gender in single character

  • See the trailer of Erin Brockovich

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9TjEklyF7-E


Carrie Bradshaw

Postfeminists?What about the new show Girls?

Sex in the City


Gendered Images in Advertising

  • Advertising’s influence on views may be more powerful than programmed media content

    • Advertisements are repeated


Gendered Images in Advertising

  • Majority of ads emphasize visual images

    • Less subject to conscious analysis

  • We think we’re immune

    • Research suggests differently


Gendered Images in Advertising

  • Advertising portrays men and independent, successful, engaged in activities

  • In some ads, men appear angry – rebels against authority

    • Images can contribute to negative self-images


Gendered Images in Advertising

  • Advertising directed at men often link products with hypermasculinity and violence

  • Men’s dominance also emphasized by positioning


Gendered Images in Advertising

  • Ads for cooking and cleaning products caricature men as incompetent klutzes

  • Women are often shown anguishing over dirty floors and bathroom fixtures only to be saved by products

  • Male voice overs often used


Gendered Images in Advertising

  • Objectification of women

  • Highly sexual poses

  • Hope product will make us more like women in ads or more likely to be appealing to them


Gendered Images in Advertising

  • Advertising plays role in promoting appearance and pleasing others

    • Emphasize women’s need to change themselves

    • If woman fails man might leave her


Let’s do a quick gender analysis of the following advertisements.


Ads, technology, and men


Ads, technology, and women


Advertizing and domesticity


Anna Kournikova

Omega Ads

Pierce Brosnan


Natalia Vodianova

Louis Vuitton Ads

Sean Connery


Jennifer Aniston

Glacéau Water Ads

Tom Brady


Pantene Ads


Cologne Ads


Perfume Ads


BMW Ads


Milk Ads


Woman as objects


Woman as available & vulnerable


Violence against women in ads


Media Tell Us How to Relate

  • Most of time, media tell us that women and men relate to each other in traditional ways


Women’s Dependence/ Men’s Independence

  • Media portray women as domestic and dependent on men

  • Media portray girls and women as dependent and boys and men as independent


Women’s Dependence/ Men’s Independence

  • Books aimed at adolescent females emphasize importance of being pretty and popular

  • Women and minorities cast in supporting roles in television shows for children and adults


Women’s Dependence/ Men’s Independence

  • Beauty more emphasized than health in women’s magazines

    • Magazines aimed at girls brim over with advice on how to lose weight and look better


Women’s Dependence/ Men’s Independence

  • Music videos portray females as strippers or prostitutes

  • Males shown ignoring, exploiting, directing women

  • Women sexualized and infantilized in video games


Women’s Dependence/ Men’s Independence

  • There are exceptions

    • Law and Order Special Victims Unit


Women’s Incompetence/ Men’s Authority

  • Men shown as authorities who save or take care of less competent women

    • Children’s literature portrays females rescued by males

  • This stereotype occasionally challenged


Women’s Incompetence/ Men’s Authority

  • Newspapers convey message men are authorities and by near absence or lack of power - women are not

  • More than 2/3 of cited sources are male


Women’s Incompetence/ Men’s Authority

  • Women represented more as victims on newspaper front pages

  • When newspapers cover powerful women, often focus more on appearance and personal lives


Women As Primary Caregivers/ Men as Breadwinners

  • Media portrayals of women give little attention to career activities

  • Shown predominantly in roles as homemakers, mothers, wives


Women As Primary Caregivers/ Men as Breadwinners

  • Newspapers and TV news emphasize men’s independent activities

  • Define news as stories about men

    • Stories about men focus on work and achievements


Women As Primary Caregivers/ Men as Breadwinners

  • Fewer stories about women

    • Emphasize roles as wives, mothers

    • Women presented in terms of attractiveness or unattractiveness


Women As Primary Caregivers/ Men as Breadwinners

  • Stories about women’s achievements mention marriage, family


Women as Victims/Men as Aggressors

  • Women portrayed as sex objects for men’s pleasure

  • Images show desirable men as aggressive and dominant

  • Images show desirable women as young, pretty, sexual, vulnerable


Women as Victims/Men as Aggressors

  • Men are seen coercing women into sexual activities or physically abusing them

  • Encourage us to see violence as erotic


Women as Victims/Men as Aggressors

  • Hip-hop, rap, gangsta rap carry messages about relationships between women and men

    • Portray women as sex objects

    • Portray men as egocentric, insensitive abusers


Women as Victims/Men as Aggressors

  • Adolescents who listen to music with highest level of sexually degrading lyrics more likely to engage in sex


Women as Victims/Men as Aggressors

  • Much of rap glorifies violence

    • Conveys messages about gender and race


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Media encourage us to consume

  • Primary purpose is to convince us we need to own more things, buy more products and services, and spend


Motivate Us to Consume

  • May feel our body is not good enough

  • Advertising plays on insecurity


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Encourage us to perceive normal bodies and physical functions as problems that can be solved by buying something


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Advertising increasingly focused on girls

    • Girl power is reduced to purchasing power

    • Encourages them to aspire to sexualized image


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Media pathologize male bodies

    • Bodybuilding trend created unrealistic and unhealthy ideals

      • Contributes to increasing abuse of steroids among men


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Normal changes in men’s sexual vigor represented as problems

  • Not problem until drug companies decided could make money


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Advertising effective in convincing need products to solve problems

    • Normal body weight for women abnormal

    • Encouraged to cover up gray hair

    • Facial lines can be removed


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Belief women should remove body hair grows out of media campaign

  • Campaign recently targeted men


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Many women’s breast size exceeded cultural ideal in 1960s

    • Breast reduction surgeries increased


Motivate Us to Consume

  • By 1980s, cultural standards changed to define large breasts as ideal

    • Breast augmentation surgeries accelerated

    • Surgery can lead to disfigurement and loss of sensation


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Surgeries to conform to white ideals on the rise


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Efforts to pathologize natural physiology can be serious

    • Emphasis on excessive thinness contributes to severe dieting and eating disorders


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Most top female models are skeletal

  • Dangers include heart attack, stroke, liver disease

  • Dangers exist for men who use steroids


Assess Ourselves Unfairly

  • Unrealistic images encourage us to see ourselves as inadequate

  • Portrayals of relationships between men and women also unrealistic


Assess Ourselves Unfairly

  • Most encounter problems in relationships that can’t be solved in 30 minutes

  • Most will not be able to pursue career and be relaxed and always available to family and friends


Assess Ourselves Unfairly

  • When besieged with impossible images, difficult not to feel inadequate

    • May feel we and our relationships are inferior

    • Research supports this


Normalizing Violence Against Women

  • Naïve to claim media cause violence

  • Mounting evidence media contributes to increasing male violence


Normalizing Violence Against Women

  • After watching sexually explicit films that degrade women, men become more dominant toward women

  • When see violence in media, come to view as commonplace, acceptable


Normalizing Violence Against Women

  • Video games push envelope of mediated violence

    • Some researchers think violent games harmless

    • Majority of scholars think games dangerous because engage one virtually in violence


Normalizing Violence Against Women

  • Social learning theory claims we engage in behaviors that are rewarded and avoid behaviors that are punished


Normalizing Violence Against Women

  • Cognitive development theory focuses on use of role models on which to base behaviors and identities

  • Symbolic interactionism highlights importance of social views in shaping identities


Gender Stereotypes in US Media

1.Masculinity

a.active/strong

b.provider/public

c.rational/logical

d.sexual subjects

2.Femininity

a.passive/weak

b.nurturing/domestic (private)

c.emotional/irrational

d.sexual objects


Some Possible Consequences of Gender Stereotyping in the Media

1.Limited models for identification

2.Eating disorders

a.“ideal” body type

3.Industry imbalances

4.Work barriers


It’s not just sports coverage…

  • "Miss Representation": Official Trailer

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6gkIiV6konY

  • But aren’t we seeing some images of powerful women?

  • What about Sex in the City?

  • Desperate Housewives?


  • Sex in the City – did show women going after what they wanted. BUT…what did they want? Clothes, shoes, purses and men.

  • Did not show women being aggressive outside of social life.

  • In one episode, Carrie discovers she has less than 1000 dollars but 40,000 in shoes.

  • Other shows? Titanic? Desperate Housewives? Girls?


Portray Men Stereotypically

  • Contradictory images of masculinity embodied by rock and rap artists

    • Some rappers uphold traditional images of men, women relationships


Portray Women Stereotypically

  • Media aimed at youth show female characters shopping, grooming, being emotional

  • Portray women and young girls in sexualized ways


Portray Women Stereotypically

  • Representations of women assume whiteness is norm and ideal

  • Depictions of Black women rely on negative stereotypes of mammies, jezebels, welfare mothers


Portray Women Stereotypically

  • Prominence of white norms for female attractiveness

    • Black women have lighter skin and straighter hair than typical

    • Asian women and Latinas represented as exotic and sexualized


Portray Women Stereotypically

  • Media images reflect stereotypes of women and femininity

    • Women as sex object

    • Feminine ideal young and thin

    • Preoccupied with men and children

    • Enmeshed in relationships or housework


Portray Women Stereotypically

  • Female newscasters are young, attractive, and less outspoken than males


Portray Women Stereotypically

  • Led to pornification of mainstream media

  • Girls and women responsible for consequences of sexual activity

  • Portrayed as passive

  • Portrayed as ornamental objects


Portray Women Stereotypically

  • Reality TV reinforces traditional views of women and what makes women desirable


Portray Women Stereotypically

  • Media limit portrayals of women to two opposing types: good and bad

    • Good

      • Pretty, deferential, focused on home and family

      • Cast as victims, angels, martyrs


Portray Women Stereotypically

  • Media offer bad woman image

    • Witch, bitch, whore, iron maiden

      • Encounter in children’s literature


Portray Women Stereotypically

  • Criteria for good woman challenged recently

    • But if look more closely at nontraditional images, see woman must also meet traditional stereotypes of femininity


Portray Women Stereotypically

  • Commodified sexuality prominent in reality TV shows

  • Hypersexual identity achieved through consumption of products and services


Portray Women Stereotypically

  • Trend of combining traditional and nontraditional images of gender in single character

  • See the trailer of Erin Brockovich

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9TjEklyF7-E


Gendered Advertising

  • Advertising’s influence on views may be more powerful than programmed media content

    • Advertisements are repeated


Gendered Advertising

  • Majority of ads emphasize visual images

    • Less subject to conscious analysis

  • We think we’re immune

    • Research suggests differently


Gendered Advertising

  • Advertising portrays men and independent, successful, engaged in activities

  • In some ads, men appear angry – rebels against authority


Gendered Advertising

  • Men in ads have muscular bodies, perfect hair, teeth

  • Contribute to negative self-image and dangerous behavior


Gendered Advertising

  • Advertising directed at men links products with hypermasculinity and violence

  • Men’s dominance is emphasized by positioning


Gendered Advertising

  • Ads for cooking and cleaning products show men as incompetent

  • Also represent men in home situations as lazy dolts


Gendered Advertising

  • Ads represent women as competent in cleaning and caregiving roles

  • Male voice-overs reinforce view of men as authorities


Gendered Advertising

  • Objectification of women

  • Highly sexual poses

  • Women are perfect, sexy


Gendered Advertising

  • Advertising plays role in promoting appearance and pleasing others

    • Emphasize women’s need to change themselves

    • If woman fails man might leave her


Gendered Advertising

  • Sometimes advertisers control content of magazines

    • Complimentary copy – articles that increase appeal of product


Gendered Advertising

  • Product placement – showing or mentioning product in show

  • Immersive advertising – incorporates product in to storyline


Tell How Relate to Each Other

  • Most of time, media tell us that women and men relate to each other in traditional ways


Dependence/ Independence

  • Media portray women as domestic and dependent on men

  • Media portray girls and women as dependent and boys and men as independent


Dependence/ Independence

  • Books aimed at adolescent females emphasize importance of being pretty and popular

  • Women and minorities cast in supporting roles in television shows for children and adults


Dependence/ Independence

  • Beauty more emphasized than health in women’s magazines

    • Magazines aimed at girls brim over with advice on how to lose weight and look better


Dependence/ Independence

  • Music videos portray females as strippers or prostitutes

  • Males shown ignoring, exploiting, directing women

  • Women sexualized and infantilized in video games


Dependence/ Independence

  • There are exceptions

    • Law and Order Special Victims Unit


Incompetence/ Authority

  • Men shown as authorities who save or take care of less competent women

    • Children’s literature portrays females rescued by males

  • This stereotype occasionally challenged


Incompetence/ Authority

  • Newspapers convey message men are authorities and by near absence or lack of power - women are not

  • More than 2/3 of cited sources are male


Incompetence/ Authority

  • Women unlikely to be represented as experts

  • Blacks cast in racially stereotyped roles


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Some ads are claimed to help with need we have identified

  • But cultivate desire in us by convincing we have problems weren’t aware of yet


Incompetence/ Authority

  • Women more often represented as victims on front page

  • Stories about powerful women focus more on appearance and personal lives


Primary Caregivers/ Breadwinners

  • Media portrayals of women give little attention to career activities

  • Shown predominantly in roles as homemakers, mothers, wives


Primary Caregivers/ Breadwinners

  • Newspapers and TV news emphasize men’s independent activities

  • Define news as stories about men

    • Stories about men focus on work and achievements


Primary Caregivers/ Breadwinners

  • Fewer stories about women

    • Emphasize roles as wives, mothers

    • Women presented in terms of attractiveness or unattractiveness


Primary Caregivers/ Breadwinners

  • Stories about women’s achievements mention marriage, family


Victims & Sex Objects/Aggressors

  • Women portrayed as sex objects for men’s pleasure

  • Images show desirable men as aggressive and dominant

  • Images show desirable women as young, pretty, sexual, vulnerable


Victims & Sex Objects/Aggressors

  • Men seldom shown nude

  • Women routinely shown nude

  • Images common in music videos

  • Portrayals encourage to see violence as erotic


Victims & Sex Objects/Aggressors

  • Hip-hop, rap, gangsta rap carry messages about relationships between women and men

    • Portray women as sex objects

    • Portray men as egocentric, insensitive abusers


Victims & Sex Objects/Aggressors

  • Adolescents who listen to music with highest level of sexually degrading lyrics more likely to engage in sex


Victims & Sex Objects/Aggressors

  • Much of rap glorifies violence

    • Conveys messages about gender and race


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Media encourage us to consume

  • If we buy product or have procedure will look better


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Media encourage us to perceive normal bodies and normal physical functions as problems

    • Unacceptable, defective


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Advertising increasingly focused on girls

    • Girl power is reduced to purchasing power

    • Encourages them to aspire to sexualized image


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Media pathologize male bodies

    • Bodybuilding trend created unrealistic and unhealthy ideals

      • Contributes to increasing abuse of steroids among men


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Normal changes in men’s sexual vigor represented as problems

  • Not problem until drug companies decided could make money


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Advertising effective in convincing need products to solve problems

    • Normal body weight for women abnormal

    • Encouraged to cover up gray hair

    • Facial lines can be removed


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Belief women should remove body hair grows out of media campaign

  • Hair removal campaign has recently targeted men


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Many women’s breast size exceeded cultural ideal in 1960s

    • Breast reduction surgeries increased


Motivate Us to Consume

  • By 1980s, cultural standards changed to define large breasts as ideal

    • Breast augmentation surgeries accelerated

    • Surgery can lead to disfigurement and loss of sensation


Motivate Us to Consume

  • More women having parts of toes removed

    • Improves toe cleavage

      • Can fit into pointed-toe shoes


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Surgeries to conform to white ideals on the rise


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Efforts to pathologize natural physiology can be serious

    • Emphasis on excessive thinness contributes to severe dieting and eating disorders


Motivate Us to Consume

  • Most top female models are skeletal

  • Dangers include heart attack, stroke, liver disease

  • Dangers exist for men who use steroids


Assess Ourselves Unfairly

  • Unrealistic images encourage us to see ourselves as inadequate

  • Portrayals of relationships between men and women also unrealistic


Assess Ourselves Unfairly

  • Most encounter problems in relationships that can’t be solved in 30 minutes

  • Most will not be able to pursue career and be relaxed and always available to family and friends


Assess Ourselves Unfairly

  • Readers of self-help books have less realistic ideals

    • Experience more frustration and disappointment

    • Likely to be dissatisfied with real, normal relationships


Assess Ourselves Unfairly

  • When besieged with impossible images, difficult not to feel inadequate

    • May feel we and our relationships are inferior

    • Research supports this


Normalizing Violence Against Women

  • Naïve to claim media cause violence

  • Mounting evidence media contributes to increasing male violence


Normalizing Violence Against Women

  • After watching sexually explicit films that degrade women, men become more dominant toward women

  • When see violence in media, come to view as commonplace, acceptable


Normalizing Violence Against Women

  • Video games push envelope of mediated violence

    • Some researchers think violent games harmless

    • Majority of scholars think games dangerous because engage one virtually in violence


Mickey Mouse Monopoly

  • unprecedented control over images skewed and dominated by corporate interests.

  • Disney's stories form and help form a child's imaginary world.

  • Analyze media to understand role media plays in socializing.

  • a dominant storyteller globally- and what kind of stories are being told here?

  • media effects are not really immediate or straightforward, they are much more about creating an environment of images that shape what we know about the world.


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