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CHAPTER 23 THE GILDED AGE. The Gilded Age 1869-1889 or 1870-1890 Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner were the men who wrote a book The Gilded Age. Nicknames for the Gilded Age : “Era of Good Stealings ” “Great Barbecue ”. Ulysses S. Grant.

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CHAPTER 23 THE GILDED AGE

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Chapter 23 the gilded age

CHAPTER 23

THE GILDED AGE


Chapter 23 the gilded age

The Gilded Age

1869-1889or 1870-1890

Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner were the men who wrote a book The Gilded Age.

Nicknames for the Gilded Age :

“Era of Good Stealings”

“Great Barbecue”


Chapter 23 the gilded age

Ulysses S. Grant

Election of 1868

Republican Nominee--Grant

Republican Platform: Continued Military Reconstruction

Democratic Nominee--Horatio Seymore

Democratic Platform: Denounced Military Reconstruction

Most popular figure to emerge from Civil War.

Appeared non-political.

Voters tired of typical politicians!

"Waving the Bloody Shirt"


Chapter 23 the gilded age

Corruption in Grant's Presidency

  • Jim Fisk and Jay Gould

  • Tweed Ring

  • Credit Mobilier Scandal

  • Whiskey Ring


Chapter 23 the gilded age

Tweed Ring

Located in New York City

Led by William “Boss” Tweed

Political machine called Tammany Hall

Exposed by NY Times and cartoonist Thomas Nast


Chapter 23 the gilded age

ELECTION OF 1872

“Turn the Rascals Out”

Liberal Republican Party formed in response to Grant’s corrupt presidency

GRANT WINS!!

Republican Party endorsed Grant…”Grant us another term!”

Democrats endorse Horace Greeley


Chapter 23 the gilded age

  • Caused by

  • Overproduction of railroads, mines, factories, and farm products

  • Bankers made too risky loans

  • Value of “Greenbacks” went down

PANIC OF 1873


Chapter 23 the gilded age

Hard Money vs. Soft Money

Democrats in Congress wanted to print more money to stimulate the economy. Republicans feared rise in inflation

SPECIE RESUMPTION ACT OF 1875-Greenbacks out of circulation; payments in gold!

"CRIME OF '73"

BLAND-ALLISON ACT OF 1878


Chapter 23 the gilded age

GREENBACK LABOR PARTY

Formed seeing more soft money

Elected 14 members to Congress

Died when the currency issue was resolved!!!


Chapter 23 the gilded age

Voting patterns during the Gilded Age

  • 80%voted in the Gilded Age.

  • Straight ticket-when you vote for everyone

  • of the same party.

  • Ticket splitting-when you vote for candidates on

  • both parties. This was very rare

  • during the Gilded Age.

GOP- Grand Old Party …….Republicans

GAR- “Grand Army of the Republic”…veterans

Generally all Republicans


Chapter 23 the gilded age

Patronageis the new word that means basically the spoils system. Used heavily by both parties during the Gilded Age.

Republicans were divided into 2 factions over the Spoils System:StalwartsandHalf-Breeds.

Half-Breeds-wanted to reform the spoils system. James G. Blaine was the leader of the Half-Breeds.

Stalwarts-supported the use of the spoils system. Roscoe Conkling was the leader of the Stalwarts


Chapter 23 the gilded age

Election of 1876

Samuel Tilden- Democrat

Rutherford B. Hayes- Republican

Disputed election.

Samuel Tilden got 184 electoral votes but needed just one more to become president.

Hayes needed 20 and there were 20 electoral votes in dispute.

Which states were in dispute? Why?


Chapter 23 the gilded age

COMPROMISE OF 1877

Decided the winner of the Election of 1876

Congress passed theElectoral Count Act.

5Senators, 5 House members and 5 fromtheSupreme Court… one independent SupremeCourtjustice, David Davis.

(7Republicans,7Democrats, and1independent)

Tell the story! Would this happen today?

Result: 8 Republicans to 7 Democrats


Chapter 23 the gilded age

Compromise of 1877

1. Rutherford B. Hayes becomes president.

2 Hayes must withdraw all federal troops

out of the South thus officially ending

Reconstruction.

3. Hayes had to give some Democrats

government jobs through the spoils

system.

REVIEW ALL

Last major compromise in American history


Chapter 23 the gilded age

  • “Rutherfraud”

  • “Old 8-to-7”

  • “His Fraudulency”

Rutherford B. Hayes

“Lemonade Lucy”- his wife, got nickname b/c she didn’t allowing drinking in White House.

The “Cold Water” administration


Chapter 23 the gilded age

Civil Rights Act of 1875

This was the last Civil Rights Act past by the Republicans to protect blacks during Reconstruction.

Supposedly guaranteed equal accommodations

in public places & prohibited racial discrimination in jury selection. (basically the Civil Rights Act of1964)

This act was toothless and stayed that way for almost a century.


Chapter 23 the gilded age

The 3 methods that Southern Democrats used against blacks to keep them from exercising their civil rights:

  • Poll taxes

  • Literacy tests

  • Barefaced intimidation

“Grandfather clause” was passed by many states. This stipulated that if your grandfather had voted in the election of 1860…you were exempt from poll taxes & literacy tests.


Chapter 23 the gilded age

JIM CROW LAWS

The “Jim Crow” laws were a series of laws passed in South in 1890’s. These segregated blacks and whites in public places.

These were declared legal and constitutional in Plessy v. Fergerson

1896

Plessy v. Fergerson stated,”that separate but equal is O.K.” This legalized segregation!


Chapter 23 the gilded age

CHINESE IMMIGRANTS

Many Chinese “coolies” were coming into California.

They competed with the Irish and Blacks for jobs!

Denis Kearney was the Irishman who organized the abuse of the Chinese.

The Chinaman sometimes wore a pigtail called a “queues”


Chinese exclusion act

1882

Chinese Exclusion Act

Chinese Exclusion Act-- slammed

the door on Chinese immigrants.

They were prohibited from

immigrating to the United States.


Chapter 23 the gilded age

Election of 1880

President- James GarfieldRepublican- Half-Breed

Vice Pres.- Chester ArthurRepublican- Stalwart

“What is there in this place that a man should ever want to get into?”

James A. Garfield

What was a Stalwart?

What was a Half-Breed?


Chapter 23 the gilded age

The Assassination of James Garfield

Charles Guiteaushot Garfield. He was a

disappointed and deranged office-seeker.

Charles Guiteau

“I am a stalwart, Chester Arthur is now president of the U.S.!”… -Charles Guiteau


Chapter 23 the gilded age

CHESTER ARTHUR

“For the vice-presidency, I was indebt to Mr. Conkling, but for the Presidency of the U.S. my debt is to the Almighty.”

-Chester Arthur

What did he mean by this quote?


Chapter 23 the gilded age

1883

The Pendleton Civil Service Act

Passed because of the assassination of James Garfield.

Reformed the Spoils System.

Set up a merit system based on aptitude, instead of who you were or knew.

Set a system of competitive examinations


Chapter 23 the gilded age

Election of 1884

James G. Blaine- Republican

Grover Cleveland- Democrat

Grover Cleveland- bachelor at the time of his election.

Had an affair with a widow, child was born and he took responsibility.

Republican slogan was “Ma ma where’s my pa?”

Mulligan Letters-group of letters written by Blaine that showed he was involved in some corrupt deals.

At the bottom it read, “burn this letter!”

Democrats used it as a slogan “Burn, burn, burn this letter!”

Mugwamps- group of Republicans who refused to vote for Blaine.


Chapter 23 the gilded age

Election of 1884

Election was close, came down mainly to New

York.

Slogan said by one of Blaine’s followers that helped his defeat was “Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion”

Insulted Irish in NY, and along with Mulligan Letters, cost him the election.


Chapter 23 the gilded age

“Laissez-Faire”-“Hands off, let be” Govt. should not intervene with private business.

“Pork- barrel”-things not necessary or useful. Spending money not meant to be spent.


Chapter 23 the gilded age

“Public office is a public trust.”

-Grover Cleveland

Quotes

Though the people should support the government, the government should not support the people.”

-Grover Cleveland

“What’s the point in being elected or re-elected unless you stand for something?”

-Grover Cleveland


The forgettable presidents

The “Forgettable Presidents”

U. S. Grant

Rutherford B. Hayes

James A. Garfield

Chester Arthur

Ben Harrison

***Grover Cleveland


Chapter 23 the gilded age

Election of 1888

Grover Cleveland- Democrat

Benjamin Harrison- Republican

“Young Tippecanoe”

Grandson of William Henry Harrison


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