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Network Virtualization: Recent Developments. Washington University in Saint Louis Saint Louis, MO 63130 [email protected] CSE 770 Networking Research Seminar at WUSTL January 28, 2013

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Network virtualization recent developments

Network Virtualization: Recent Developments

Washington University in Saint LouisSaint Louis, MO [email protected]

CSE 770 Networking Research Seminar at WUSTLJanuary 28, 2013

These slides and audio/video recordings are available at:http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cs770-13/virtual.htm


Overview

Overview

  • Virtualization: Why, How?

  • Recent Networking Virtualization Technologies

  • Software Defined Networking

  • Our Research: Open Application Delivery


Virtualization of life

Virtualization of Life

  • Internet Þ Virtualization

  • No need to get out for

    • Office

    • Shopping

    • Entertainment

    • Education

  • Virtual Workplace

  • Virtual Shopping

  • Virtual Education

  • Virtual Sex

  • Virtual Computing


Why virtualize

Switch

Switch

Switch

Switch

Why Virtualize?

  • Sharing: Break up a large resourceLarge Capacity or high-speed

  • Isolation: Protection from other tenants

  • Aggregating: Combine many resources in to one

  • Dynamics: Fast allocation, Change/Mobility, load balancing

  • Ease of Management  Cost Savings

  • Mobility for fault tolerance

10Gb


Virtualization in computing

Virtualization in Computing

  • Storage:

    • Virtual Memory  L1, L2, L3, ...  Recursive

    • Virtual CDs, Virtual Disks (RAID), Cloud storage

  • Computing:

    • Virtual Desktop  Virtual Server  Virtual Datacenter

      Thin Client  VMs  Cloud

  • Networking: Plumbing

    • Virtual Channels, Virtual LANs, Virtual Private Networks

    • Networks consist of: Hosts - L2 Links - L2 Bridges - L2 Networks - L3 Links - L3 Routers - L3 Networks – L4 Transports – L5 Applications

    • Each of these can be/need to be virtualized

    • Quick review of recent technologies for network virtualization


Vnics

vNICs

  • Each VM needs its own network interface card (NIC)

vM1

vM2

vNIC1

vNIC2

Hypervisor

vSwitch

pM

pNIC

pNIC

p = Physical

v = Virtual

M = Machine

pSwitch


Vnics cont

vNICs (Cont)

vM1

vM2

vM1

vM2

vM1

vM2

  • VM vendors: S/W NICs in Hypervisor w Virtual Ethernet Bridge (VEB)(overhead, not ext manageable, not all features)

  • NIC Vendors: NIC provides virtual ports using Single-Route I/O virtualization (SR-IOV) on PCI bus

  • Switch Vendors: Switch provides virtual channels for inter-VM Communications using virtual Ethernet port aggregator (VEPA): 802.1Qbg (s/w upgrade), 802.1Qbh (new switches)

vNIC1

vNIC2

pM

Hypervisor

vNIC1

vNIC2

VEPA

pM

vNIC1

vNIC2

vSwitch

pM

pNIC

vSwitch

pNIC

pNIC

pSwitch


Bridge port extension

Bridge

Bridge

Bridge

Bridge

Bridge

Bridge

Bridge Port Extension

  • Multiple physical bridges to make a single virtual bridge with a large number of ports Þ Easy to manage and configure

  • IEEE 802.1BR

Bridge

Bridge


Multi tenants

Multi-Tenants

  • Each tenant needs its own networking domain with its VLAN IDs

  • Virtual Extensible Local Area Networks (VXLAN)

  • Network Virtualization using Generic Routing Encapsulation (NVGRE)

  • Stateless Transport Tunneling Protocol (STT)

    Þ Network Virtualization over L3 (NVO3) group in IETF

Server 1

Server 2

VM1-1VNI 22

VM1-2VNI 34

VM2-1VNI 34

VM2-2VNI 74

VM1-3VNI 74

VM1-4VNI 98

VM2-3VNI 98

VM2-4VNI 22

L3 Networks

Hypervisor VTEP IP1

Hypervisor VTEP IP2


Multi site

Multi-Site

  • Better to keep VM mobility in a LAN(IP address changes if subnet changes)

  • Solution: IP encapsulation

  • Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL)


Clouds and mobile apps global virtual net

Clouds and Mobile Apps Global Virtual Net

  • June 29, 2007: Apple announced iPhoneÞ Birth of Mobile Internet, Mobile Apps

    • Almost all services are now mobile apps: Google, Facebook, Bank of America, …

    • Almost all services need to be global (World is flat)

    • Almost all services use cloud computing

  • August 25, 2006: Amazon announced EC2 Þ Birth of Cloud Computing in reality(Prior theoretical concepts of computing as a utility)

  • Web Services To Drive Future Growth For Amazon ($2B in 2012, $7B in 2019) - Forbes, Aug 12, 2012

Networks need to support efficient service setup and delivery


Application delivery evolution

Application Delivery Evolution

1. Single Server

2. Data Center

Load Balancers

SSL Off loaders

3. Global Clouds

Global Internet

Need to make the global Internet look like a data center


Google wan

Google WAN

Google L7 Proxy

  • Google appliances in Tier 3 ISPs

  • Details of Google WAN are not public

  • ISPs can not use it: L7 proxies require app msg reassembly

Network POP

Google Data Center #1

Access ISP

Google WAN

Access ISP

Google Data Center #2

Google L7 Proxy


Our solution openadn

Our Solution: OpenADN

  • Open Application Delivery Networking PlatformPlatform = OpenADN aware clients, servers, switches, and middle-boxes

  • Allows Application Service Providers (ASPs) to quickly setup services on Internet using cloud computingÞ Global datacenter

ServersA2

Servers A1, B1

OpenADNSwitches

OpenADNmiddle-box

Internet

Legacy Routers

Access ISP

Access ISP

Clients

Clients


Development 1 centralization of control plane

Development 1: Centralization of Control Plane

Control

  • Control = Prepare forwarding table

  • Data Plane: Forward using the table

  • Forwarding table is prepared by a central controller

  • Protocol between the controller and the forwarding element: OpenFlow

  • Centralized control of policies

  • Switches are simple. Controller can be complexCan use powerful CPUs

  • Lots of cheap switches = Good for large datacenters

Switch

Data

Forwarding Element

Forwarding Element

OpenFlow

Forwarding Element

Forwarding Element

Ref: [MCK08] ``OpenFlow: Enabling Innovation in Campus Networks," OpenFlow Whitepaper, March 2008http://www.openflow.org/documents/openflow-wp-latest.pdf


Centralized vs distributed

Centralized vs. Distributed

  • Fully centralized is not scalable. Fully distributed is not manageable.Þ Hierarchy


Development 2 standardized abstractions

Development 2: Standardized Abstractions

  • The routers are expensive because there is no standard implementation.

  • Every vendor has its own hardware, operating/ management system, and proprietary protocol implementations.

  • Similar to Mainframe era computers. No cross platform operating systems (e.g., Windows) or cross platform applications (java programs).

OSPF

BGP

DHCP

Cisco IOSJuniper JUNOS

Network Operating System

Proprietary fast forwarding hardware

Ref: http://www.itc23.com/.../K1_McKeown-ITC_Keynote_Sept_2011.pdf


Example pc paradigm shift

Scientific

Business

Batch

OS360 Operating System

IBM 360 HW, Storage, …

VM1

VM2

VM3

Hypervisor

Physical HW

Example: PC Paradigm Shift

  • Computing became cheaper because of clear division of hardware, operating system, and application boundaries with well defined APIs between them

  • Virtualization  simple management + multi-tenant isolation

MSOffice

OpenOffice

1981

DOS

Windows

LINUX

Intel

AMD

ARM

1998


Software defined networking

Software Defined Networking

  • Layered abstractions with standardized APIs

Enterprise 1

Enterprise 2

Enterprise 3

Applications

Multicasting

Mobility

App1

App2

Network OS1

Network OS2

Network OS3

Network OS

Network Virtualization

Virtualization

Forwarding HW

Forwarding HW

Forwarding

Forwarding HW

Forwarding HW

Ref: http://opennetsummit.org/archives/oct11/shenker-tue.pdf


Sdn s layered abstraction

SDN’s Layered Abstraction

ASP1

ASP2

ASP3

Application Level Control (ASP)

  • SDN provides standardized mechanisms for distribution of control information

OpenADN

OpenADN

OpenADN

Northbound

Network Level Control (ISP)

Net App3

Net App1

Net App2

Network OS

Network OS1

Network OS2

Network OS3

Network Virtualization

Virtualization

Southbound

Forwarding HW

Forwarding

OpenFlow

Forwarding HW

Forwarding HW


Sdn architecture component examples

SDN Architecture Component Examples

Monitoring/Debugging

oftrace

openseer

oflops

ofmonitor

Control Applications

Multicasting

Mobility

Network OS/Controller

NOX

Beacon

Maestro

Floodlight

Helios

Virtualization/Slicing

FlowVisor

HP

OpenFlow

Forwarding

NEC

Ciena

Open-VSwitch

Juniper

Pronto

Netgear

Ref: https://courses.soe.ucsc.edu/courses/cmpe259/Fall11/01/pages/lectures/srini-sdn.pdf


Sdn impact

SDN Impact

  • Why so much industry interest?

    • Commodity hardware  Lots of cheap forwarding engines  Low cost

    • Programmability  Customization

    • Those who buy routers, e.g., Google, Amazon, Docomo, DT will benefit significantly

  • Tsunami of software defined devices:

    • Software defined wireless base stations

    • Software defined optical switches

    • Software defined routers


Life cycles of technologies

Life Cycles of Technologies

MPLS

Potential

SDN

ATM

Time

Research

Hype

Disillusionment

Success orFailure


Industry growth formula for success

Industry Growth: Formula for Success

Innovators Startups TechnologyDifferentiation

  • Paradigm Shifts  Leadership Shift

  • Old market leaders stick to old paradigm and loose

  • Mini ComputersPC, PhoneSmart Phone, PCSmart Phone

Big CompaniesManufacturing Price differentiation

Number of

Companies

Time

NewEntrants

Consoli-dation

StableGrowth


Openadn in sdn s layered abstraction

OpenADN in SDN’s Layered Abstraction

ASP1

ASP2

ASP3

Application Level Control (ASP)

  • SDN provides standardized mechanisms for distribution of control information

OpenADN

OpenADN

OpenADN

Network Level Control (ISP)

App4

App1

App2

App3

Network OS

Network OS1

Network OS2

Network OS3

Network Virtualization

Virtualization

Forwarding HW

Forwarding

OpenADN Aware OpenFlow

Forwarding HW

Forwarding HW


Key features of openadn

Key Features of OpenADN

  • Edge devices only.Core network can be current TCP/IP based, OpenFlow or future SDN based

  • Coexistence (Backward compatibility): Old on New. New on Old

  • Incremental Deployment

  • Economic Incentive for first adopters

  • Resource owners (ISPs) keep complete control over their resources

Most versions of Ethernet followed these principles. Many versions of IP did not.


Summary

Summary

  • Cloud computing Þ Virtualization of computing, storage, and networkingÞ Numerous recent standards related to networking virtualization both in IEEE and IETF

  • Recent Networking Architecture Trends:

    • Centralization of Control plane

    • Standardization of networking abstractions Software Defined Networking (SDN)

    • Most networking devices will be software defined

  • OpenADN enables delivery of applications using North-bound SDN API


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