Psychology 305
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Psychology 305. Atypical Development Chapter 15. Atypical Development. Frequency Psychopathologies of Childhood Intellectual Atypical Development Schooling Concerns. Atypical Development. Frequency

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Psychology 305

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Psychology 305

Psychology 305

Atypical Development

Chapter 15


Atypical development

Atypical Development

  • Frequency

  • Psychopathologies of Childhood

  • Intellectual Atypical Development

  • Schooling Concerns


Atypical development1

Atypical Development

  • Frequency

    • Majority of children at some point have some “non-normal” or lagging portion of development

    • Usually labeled if persists longer than 6 months

    • Table 15.1

    • 14-20% of all children show some form of pathology


Atypical development2

Atypical Development

  • How do we understand it?

    • Developmental Psychopathology

    • Key points

      • All abnormal and normal behavior stems from the same basic processes

      • Approach is developmental or “pathways” that lead to deviant and non-deviant behavior

        • Sequences of experiences


Atypical development psychopathologies

Atypical Development-Psychopathologies

  • 3 categories of disorders

    • Externalizing Problems

      • Disturbances of conduct

    • Internalizing Problems

      • Emotional disturbances

    • Attention Problems

      • adhd


Atypical development psychopathologies1

Atypical Development-Psychopathologies

  • Externalizing Problems

    • Conduct disorders

      • Antisocial characteristics of behavior

      • High levels of aggression, argumentativeness, bullying, disobedience, threatening and loud behavior

      • Childhood Onset

        • Aggression and behavior begins in early childhood and persists through adolescence

        • Life course persistent


Atypical development psychopathologies childhood onset

Atypical Development-Psychopathologies- childhood onset

  • Pathway

    • Many risk factors

      • Harder temperament, lower intelligence, lower SES

      • Insecure/Disorganized or Insecure/Avoidant attachments

      • Throw many tantrums and defy parents regularly

      • Drug and alcohol abuse, school drop out or expulsion

      • 70% relation to adult aggression


Atypical development psychopathologies2

Atypical Development-Psychopathologies

  • Conduct Disorders cont.

    • Adolescent Onset Conduct Disorders

      • Adolescence limited delinquents

      • Behavior begins only in adolescents

      • Deviance typically milder “wrong crowd”


Atypical development psychopathologies3

Atypical Development-Psychopathologies

  • Delinquency

    • Intentional lawbreaking

    • Not always consistent with conduct disorder

    • 10% arrest rate for all children between 15-17 yrs

    • Most minor misdemeanors, but some felonies

    • When self reported rates are even higher

    • Majority of teens do not persist into adult delinquency


Atypical development psychopathologies4

Atypical Development-Psychopathologies

  • Internalized Problems

    • Depression

      • 30-40% of adolescents experience a depression episode

      • Clinical depression more rare—up to 8 %

      • Number one risk factor after puberty is being female

      • Function of number of stressors

        • Family life, illnesses, work stress, loss of income, marital separation


Atypical development psychopathologies5

Atypical Development-Psychopathologies

  • Adolescent Suicide

    • Successful suicides more common in males then females

    • Attempts more common in females

    • Risk factors

      • Emotional disturbance

      • History of physical or sexual abuse

      • Aggressive history

      • Family history of psychiatric disorders


Atypical development psychopathologies6

Atypical Development-Psychopathologies

  • Suicide Cont.

    • Other important risk factors

      • Significant stressful event—catalyst

        • Failure in valued activity or significant other

      • Altered mental state

        • Hopelessness, reduced inhibitions

        • Severe mood swings—rage

      • Opportunities present

        • Guns, pills, alcohol etc…

      • Absence of emotional connection with parents


Atypical development psychopathologies7

Atypical Development-Psychopathologies

  • Attention Problems

    • ADHD

      • Physical restlessness and inability to concentrate

      • Diagnostic criteria, table 15.2


Psychology 305

ADHD

  • Symptom logy

    • Cannot stay focused on a task that requires mental effort

    • Often act impulsively ignoring social rules

    • Lashing out with hostility when frustrated


Occurrence

Occurrence

  • 3-5% of school aged children

  • Boys at least 3X more likely to be diagnosed


Psychology 305

ADHD

  • Causes

    • Heredity must play role

      • Runs in families and occurs more often in identical than fraternal twins

      • Reduced electrical and blood flow activity inf rontal lobes

    • Environment plays a role

      • Unhappy marriages and family stress high

      • Exacerbating influences

      • Prenatal teratogens

        • Alcohol, illegal drugs, and cigarettes.

      • Parental coercive power struggles


Intellectual atypical developments

Intellectual Atypical Developments

  • Mental Retardation

    • Consistently subaverage intellectual performance—IQ lower than 75

    • Also must occur with maladaptive behavior

    • Only 2% of low IQ young children are extremely retarded


Intellectual

Intellectual

  • Physical anomaly

    • Down’s Syndrome

    • Fragile X

    • Car accident, teratogen, anoxia

  • Environment and Biology

    • Majority of mentally retarded children

    • Low IQ parents, disorganized/disrupted homes


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