Improving the success of students at risk of dropping out changing practices and policies
Download
1 / 42

Improving the Success of Students at Risk of Dropping Out: Changing Practices and Policies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 98 Views
  • Uploaded on

“Improving the Success of Students at Risk of Dropping Out: Changing Practices and Policies”. Dr. Andrew Parkin Associate Executive Director Canada Millennium Scholarship Foundation Canada 18 th Annual 2009 European Access Network Annual Conference Changing the Culture of Campus

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Improving the Success of Students at Risk of Dropping Out: Changing Practices and Policies ' - long


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Improving the success of students at risk of dropping out changing practices and policies

“Improving the Success of Students at Risk of Dropping Out: Changing Practices and Policies”

Dr. Andrew ParkinAssociate Executive DirectorCanada Millennium Scholarship FoundationCanada

18th Annual 2009 European Access Network Annual Conference

Changing the Culture of Campus

Towards an Inclusive Higher Education

June 22-24, 2009

York, UK


Outline
Outline Out: Changing Practices and Policies”

  • Introduction to the issue of persistence

  • Who leaves PSE and why?

  • Strategies to improve persistence

    • Foundations for Success

    • LE,NONET

  • Reflections on experimental research


Introduction to the issue of persistence

Introduction to the Issue of Persistence Out: Changing Practices and Policies”


Introduction to the issue of persistence1
Introduction to the Issue of Persistence Out: Changing Practices and Policies”

  • Persistence:

    • the ability of students to continue their post-secondary studies from one year to the next and ultimately complete their programs

  • Access  Success

    • Meaningful access requires that students brought into to PSE must be successful in their studies

  • Low levels of persistence pose a problem...

    • For students: left without the credential they need

    • For institutions: poor use of resources and poor performance

    • For societies:

      • lower educational attainment

      • exacerbates social cleavages


An increasingly important concern
An Increasingly Important Concern Out: Changing Practices and Policies”

As a recent OECD report puts it:

  • “the growing portion of disadvantaged students enrolled in tertiary education makes the ongoing issue of their retention and programme completion an increasingly important concern in tertiary education.”*

* Santiago, Paulo, Karine Tremblay, Ester Basri and Elena Arnal. 2008. Tertiary Education for the Knowledge Society, Volume 2. Paris: OECD.


Persistence how much do we know
Persistence: How Much Do We Know? Out: Changing Practices and Policies”

  • “We know very little about how many students drop out of programs, or why” (Rae, 2005)

  • Little research on the issue of persistence in PSE in Canada until recently

    • Previous data on persistence rates limited to institution-specific studies

    • Little program evaluation or evidence of what works

    • New research now becoming available:

      • Canada Millennium Foundation pilot projects and program evaluations


The need for program evaluation
The Need for Program Evaluation Out: Changing Practices and Policies”

“Presently…there is little evidence about the effects of institutional support programmes on student outcomes.”

Paulo Santiago, Karine Tremblay, Ester Basri and Elena Arnal. 2008. Tertiary Education for the Knowledge Society, Volume 2. Paris: OECD.

“It is ironic that institutions that spend so much time and money insisting on evidence-based decisions, spend so little time on research that evaluates higher education itself. Research on the postsecondary sector is inadequate and poorly publicized.

This should change.” Bob Rae, Ontario: A Leader in Learning. Report and Recommendations. Toronto: Government of Ontario, Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities (2005)


The challenges of program evaluation
The Challenges of Program Evaluation Out: Changing Practices and Policies”

  • Student support programs are notoriously difficult to evaluate because:

    • Programs are designed and implemented without the requirements for a viable evaluation in mind

    • Data that would facilitate evaluation are not available

    • It is difficult to isolate the effects of the program from the possible effects of external factors

    • There is no counterfactual (no reasonable “control” group against which to compare the outcomes of program recipients)


Who leaves pse and why

Who Leaves PSE and Why? Out: Changing Practices and Policies”


Persistence rates in canada
Persistence Rates in Canada Out: Changing Practices and Policies”

Overall Persistence Rates in Post-Secondary Education in Canada

Source: Finnie and Qiu, Table 6b.


Barriers to access and persistence
Barriers to Access and Persistence Out: Changing Practices and Policies”

Malatest (2007), Class of 2003


Who leaves pse and why1
Who Leaves PSE and Why? Out: Changing Practices and Policies”

Self-Reported Reasons for Discontinuing Post-Secondary Studies


Who leaves pse and why2
Who Leaves PSE and Why? Out: Changing Practices and Policies”

Factors correlated with low persistence:

  • Poor academic performance (both secondary and PSE levels)

  • Low engagement

  • Inadequate financial aid package or high levels of debt

  • Uncertainty about career goals

  • Lower levels of parental education (in some studies)

  • Aboriginal ancestry

  • Gender (men are more likely to drop out than women)

  • Age & family status (older students and students with dependent children are more likely to drop out)


Percent of PSE Students Aged 24-26 Who Had Discontinued Their Original Stream of PSE *, By Grade Average in High School

* Note: while some of these students will have discontinued their studies, others will have switched streams.

Source: Shaienks, Danielle, Tomasz Gluszynski and Justin Bayard. 2008. Postsecondary Education: Participation and Dropping Out: Differences Across University, College and Other Types of Postsecondary Institutions. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.


Percent of post secondary students who have discontinued their studies by age group
Percent of Post-Secondary Students who Have Discontinued Their Studies (By Age Group)

Source: YITS (Cohort B) – special calculation.

* Excludes First Nations youth living on reserve


Who leaves pse and why3
Who Leaves PSE and Why? Their Studies (By Age Group)

  • Those who persist are more likely to attempt more than one program than are those who drop out

  • A key difference between those who persist and those who leave is the ability to make adjustments along the way

  • Importance of “resilience” (the capacity of overcome obstacles, adapt to change, or to survive and thrive despite adversity)

    • Those who persist are able to make adjustments that help them to stay enrolled

    • Factors contributing to resilience in youth include supportive relationships with adults and parental expectations


Strategies to improve persistence

Strategies to Improve Persistence Their Studies (By Age Group)

Foundations for Success

LE,NONET


Research on policy responses
Research on Policy Responses Their Studies (By Age Group)

  • Persistence should be addressed through a comprehensive approach

    • Need to address interconnected barriers to success

    • Need to work at institutional level rather than isolated policies implemented by various departments

  • There are many programs designed to improve persistence, but few of these are evaluated for impact

  • Student support programs can be implemented in the context of a research endeavour that allows the impact of the program to be assessed effectively

    • Confirms that programs deliver the intended benefits to students

    • Confirms that resources are well-spent


Overcoming Barriers to Access and Success Their Studies (By Age Group)

(Millennium Pilot Projects)

Financial incentives

Community Support

Academic preparation

Career development activities

Improving access to PSE

Academic support

Mentoring & cultural support

Career development

Off-campus community support

Financial support

GRADUATION


Tackling the drop out rates in community colleges through financial incentives and case management

Tackling the Drop-Out Rates in Community Colleges through Financial Incentives and Case Management


Foundations for success
Foundations for Success Financial Incentives and Case Management

Research questions:

  • Do case manager-mediated support services increase the probability of completing a college program?

  • Do financial incentives in combination with case manager-mediated support services increase the probability of completing a college program?


Project participation at risk factors
Project Participation: At-Risk Factors Financial Incentives and Case Management

1) Remedial English/Communications:

Measure: English Placement assessment results (slight variation within participating colleges)

Intervention: students are either streamed to regular Communications or developmental course and are encouraged to undertake tutoring and related academic support

2) Mentoring:

Measure: Fast-Track survey question on whether the student self-identified as someone who would benefit from a mentor.

Intervention: Assignment of a mentor.

3) Career indecision:

Measure: Four Fast-Track career clarity questions, with a cumulative score greater than 10 (i.e. neutral response to strongly agree/disagree).

Intervention: two “Career Gear” workshops; Myers-Briggs; Strong-Campbell; one group debriefing; one one-on-one with counsellor (over 2 semesters)


Innovative features of the foundations for success model
Innovative Features of the Financial Incentives and Case Management Foundations for Success Model

Post-admissions testing where responses result in actual redirection to existing services

Case management approach to advise identified at-risk students (one-on-one advisement)

“Case managers” follow students’ progress for two-years. This involves encouragement, identification of students’ needs and challenges, and redirection to appropriate services.


Random Assignment Financial Incentives and Case Management

New students in 2-year programs are invited to complete the Fast Track survey, language assessment and sign informed consent, making them eligible for the study

Students deemed at risk on at least one item

Students not deemed at risk

(no further involvement in project)

Random Assignment occurs

Program Group 2

SERVICES PLUS

Academic, mentorship and career exploration support and financial incentives

Program Group 1

SERVICES

Academic, mentorship and career exploration support

Program Group 3

COMPARISON


Number of participants per college
Number of Participants per College Financial Incentives and Case Management


Year 1 results participation in ffs activities
Year 1 Results Financial Incentives and Case Management Participation in FFS Activities

Service group significantly more likely to participate in any FFS activities compared to Control group

Service Plus group significantly more likely than Service group to participate in any FFS activities

Source: 2008 College Administration Data, n=2,008.


Participation sub group analysis
Participation – Sub-group Analysis Financial Incentives and Case Management

  • Higher Semester 1 participation rates among ESL students, first generation, older, low-income and low-confidence students.

  • Higher Semester 2 participation rates among ESL students, older students, women, low income and low-confidence students.


Semester 1 gpa
Semester 1 GPA Financial Incentives and Case Management

Service Plus group GPA was higher (2.13) compared to the Control group (2.01)

Source: 2008 College Administration Data, n=2,008, missing GPAs were imputed using a regression model.


Semester 2 gpa
Semester 2 GPA Financial Incentives and Case Management

Service Plus group had a higher GPA in Semester 2 (1.96) compared to the Control group (1.79).

Source: 2008 College Administration Data, n=2,008, missing GPAs were imputed using a regression model.


Student retention beginning of year 2
Student Retention Financial Incentives and Case Management – Beginning of Year 2

Service Plus group significantly more likely to still be in program (67.2%) compared to Control group (62.6%).

Adjusting for the students that did not participate in any FFS activities, the adjusted effect of the Service Plus treatment is a 6.4% increase in retention one year into students’ college program.

Source: 2008 College Administration Data, n=1,711.


S ub group analysis who gets the most benefit from the interventions
S Financial Incentives and Case Management ub-Group Analysis – Who Gets the Most Benefit from the Interventions?

Retention:Service Plus ESL students, low-income students, and students with high school grades of 65 or lower show significantly higher retention rates than similar students in the Control group.

Source: 2008 College Administration Data, n=1,711, Cohort 1 only.


Improving the persistence rate of aboriginal learners at the university of victoria

Improving the persistence rate of Financial Incentives and Case Management Aboriginal learners at the University of Victoria

“Success after enduring many hardships” (Salish)


Le no n et
LE,NO Financial Incentives and Case Management NET

  • Pilot project to test the effectiveness of initiatives to improve the retention of Aboriginal students at the University of Victoria

  • Project recognizes that improved outcomes necessitates change not only in students but also in the university

    • “the onus for adjustment” should not be placed solely on Aboriginal students

  • LE,NONET project involves the creation and implementation of a series of programs and support structures:

    • Student Mentoring

    • Bursaries (regular and emergency)

    • Community Internship

    • Research Apprenticeship

    • Staff and Faculty Aboriginal Cultural Training (SFACT)


Le no n et1
LE,NO Financial Incentives and Case Management NET

Research question:

  • will a series of interventions involving financial, academic, peer and cultural support have a demonstrable effect on Aboriginal students’ likelihood of completing their program of studies?

  • is any particular type of intervention more effective and do the interventions have greater impact when delivered in combination with one another?


The research framework
The Research Framework Financial Incentives and Case Management

  • Research will document the process through which changes are proposed, developed, implemented, and modified at the university, faculty, department and program level over the course of the project

  • Since one of the objectives of the program is to change the university culture, it is possible for the program to affect non-participants as well as participants (cannot use random assignment)

    • evaluate the direct effects of participation in the various programs offered by the LE,NONET project

    • evaluate the indirect effects that such programs might have on students who decline to participate

  • Comparison of the persistence of Aboriginal students during the periods before and after the program was introduced

  • The LE,NONET approach will allow students to determine the depth of their involvement in the programs — making differing ‘levels of exposure’ to the interventions a key variable of interest.


Participation
Participation Financial Incentives and Case Management

  • Number of participants (2006 & 2007): 139

    • Bursaries = 87

    • Mentor = 17

    • Mentored = 35

    • Preparation seminar = 44

    • Community intership = 24

    • Research apprenticeship = 17

  • Historical cohort: 997

  • Non-participants: 728


Interim findings
Interim Findings Financial Incentives and Case Management

The majority of participants (77%) reported that their participation in LE,NONET program components contributed to the development of their sense of self as an Aboriginal person.

A strong majority (87%) agreed that their participation in the programs contributed to their sense of connection to the on-campus Aboriginal community.

Just over half (54%) said that their involvement with LE,NONET also contributed to their sense of belonging at the university.


Interim findings return to school
Interim Findings: Return to School Financial Incentives and Case Management

Overall, about half of the research participants said that LE,NONET had contributed to their decision to return to school the following year.

For some students, the financial support they received through the Project made it financially viable for them to afford their tuition and living expenses.

Other respondents said that returning to school was made easier by the emotional support and sense of community provided by LE,NONET.


Registration status interim le no n et
Registration Status (Interim): LE,NO Financial Incentives and Case Management NET


Reflections on experimental research

Reflections on Experimental Research Financial Incentives and Case Management


Reflections on experimental research1
Reflections on Experimental Research Financial Incentives and Case Management

  • These projects show that student support programs can be implemented in the context of experimental research initiatives that will lead to an increase stock of evidence about what may or may not work.

  • Experimental research is possible but not always easy to put in place. Obstacles include:

    • Money

    • Time

    • Confusion about the objectives of the research

    • Tensions between educators and researchers

      • Sticking to the script

      • What is the measure of success?

    • Recruitment of participants

  • All of these obstacles can be overcome, but only when researchers develop effective partnerships with educators and administrators.


  • Canada Millennium Scholarship Foundation Financial Incentives and Case Management 1000 Sherbrooke West, Suite 800Montreal, QC H3A 3R2

    1-877-786-3999

    All our publications are available online: www.millenniumscholarships.ca


    ad