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Chapter 2. Chapter 2 Overview. Physical Science Refresher Water pH Quest / pH lab. Polymerization Carbohydrates Carbohydrate lab Lipids/proteins/nucleic acids Macromolecules Protein modeling Enzymes and Reactions Quest/Enzyme lab. Define me!. Atom- Element- Isotope- Compound-

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Chapter 2 overview
Chapter 2 Overview

  • Physical Science Refresher

  • Water

  • pH

  • Quest / pH lab

  • Polymerization

  • Carbohydrates

  • Carbohydrate lab

  • Lipids/proteins/nucleic acids

  • Macromolecules

  • Protein modeling

  • Enzymes and Reactions

  • Quest/Enzyme lab


Define me
Define me!

  • Atom-

  • Element-

  • Isotope-

  • Compound-

  • Ionic Compound-

  • Ion-

  • Covalent Compound-


Atomic basics
Atomic Basics

  • Focus on outer electrons

  • Metals-left

  • Nonmetals-right


Bonding basics
Bonding Basics

  • Ionic Bond

    • Metal / nonmetal

    • Creates ions

    • Give/take electrons

  • Covalent Bond

    • 2+ nonmetals

    • No ions

    • Share electrons


Process box 2 1
PROCESS BOX 2-1

  • Despite the fact that ionic bonding and covalent bonding treat their electrons very differently, what similarities do they have in regard to the end result?

    3 LINE MINIMUM!


Other forces
Other forces

  • Polar covalent bonds

    • Uneven sharing of electrons

  • Hydrogen Bonds

    • H and O or N

  • Van der Waals Forces

    • Very weak bonds

    • Only close contact



Process box 2 2
PROCESS BOX 2-2

  • The vast majority of compounds in your body are made of the elements C,H,O,P,S, and N. Is most of our body the result of ionic or covalent bonds? Explain.

    3 LINE MINIMUM!


Properties of water
Properties of Water

  • Water has 6 important properties

    • Polarity

    • Hydrogen bonding

    • Adhesion

    • Cohesion

    • Universal Solvent

    • High Specific Heat


Water Properties Foldable

  • For each of the following 6 properties of water you will be expected to:

    • Label the Property

    • Draw a Picture depicting that property

    • Define or describe that property

    • Explain why that property is important to life

  • Your foldable is to be constructed in the following way:

    • Fold two pieces of paper longwise (landscape orientation or “hotdog fold”).

    • Staple them together as close to the top as possible


Water properties foldable
Water Properties Foldable

  • Front Cover—Water Properties (with your name)

  • Other side—Water Structure

  • Page 2 Polarity H-bonding

  • Page 3 Cohesion Adhesion

  • Page 4 Solvent Specific Heat

Left SideRight Side

For each Property “Flap”

Property

Definition

Importance

To Life


Process box 2 3
PROCESS BOX 2-3

  • Pick two of the water properties discussed and explain how we simply could not function/exist without them

    4 LINE MINIMUM!


The ph scale
The pH Scale

  • Reads from 0-14

  • Measures [H+]

    • 0-7 acid; 7 neutral; 8-14 base

    • Acid

    • Base

    • Neutral

Mastery?


Process box 2 4
PROCESS BOX 2-4

  • Our body needs to be between a pH of 6.5 and 7.5 to normally function. How can you eat a grapefruit for breakfast and not get ill?

    2 LINE MINIMUM!


DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS

HYDROLYSIS

MONOMERS and POLYMERS

MONOMER

POLYMER


From small to big
From Small to Big…

  • Dehydration Synthesis

    • Meaning?

    • What happens?

ANIMATION 1

ANIMATION 2


And big to small
…and Big to Small

  • Hydrolysis

    • Meaning?

    • What happens?

ANIMATION 1

ANIMATION 2


Sketch it out

Mastery?

Sketch it out

  • Dehydration Synthesis

  • Needed?

  • Hydrolysis

  • Needed?


Process box 2 5
PROCESS BOX 2-5

  • In digestion, both dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis are used. Explain when each process would happen in your body and what it would do.

    4 LINE MINIMUM!


Biomolecules
Biomolecules

  • The Big 4

    • Carbohydrates

    • Lipids

    • Proteins

    • Nucleic Acids


For the biomolecules
For the biomolecules

  • You will need to know

    • Function

    • Elements

    • Monomers

    • Polymers

    • Structure

FEMPS


Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates

  • Function

  • Elements

  • Monomers

  • Polymers

  • Structure


Carbohydrates1
Carbohydrates

  • Other Carbohydrate Facts

REMEMBER: CARBON WATER


Lipids
Lipids

  • Function

  • Elements

  • Monomers

  • Polymers

  • Structure


Lipids1
Lipids

  • Other Lipid Facts


Process box 2 6
PROCESS BOX 2-6

  • Carbohydrates and Lipids both contain the same basic elements. They are both also used for energy storage, but they energy store differently. Look at their structures and predict why this is possible

    2 LINE MINIMUM!


Proteins
Proteins

  • Function

  • Elements

  • Monomers

  • Polymers

  • Structure


Proteins1
Proteins

  • Other Protein Facts

REMEMBER: PROTEINS PERFORM


Nucleic acids
Nucleic Acids

  • Function

  • Elements

  • Monomers

  • Polymers

  • Structure


Nucleic acids1
Nucleic Acids

  • Other Nucleic Acid Facts


ATP

  • Special subgroup of DNA

  • Provides energy for reactions

  • ADP  v. ATP 


Process box 2 7
PROCESS BOX 2-7

  • PREDICT: There is a compound called adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Knowing what you know about ADP and ATP, predict the energy level of AMP.

    2 LINE MINIMUM!



ATP

Nucleic Acids

Proteins

Lipids

Carbohydrates


Chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions

  • Bonds

  • React to Produce


Activation energy
Activation Energy

  • Absorb

  • Release

ActivationEnergy is

the Energy to Activate!


Enzymes
Enzymes

  • Function

  • How?


Process box 2 9
PROCESS BOX 2-9

  • Scientists use the “Lock and Key” analogy to describe how an enzyme works. Using the picture below, create a caption that mentions “lock and key”

    2 LINE MINIMUM!


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