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For your personal use only . Unless you obtain written permission from Larry Michaelsen, Please do not:. Use as part of a presentation to other faculty. Duplicate or reproduce. Post on a web site. Team-Based Learning™ (TBL). A comprehensive strategy for using learning groups in a way that:

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For your personal use only. Unless you obtain written permission from Larry Michaelsen, Please do not:

  • Use as part of a presentation to other faculty.

  • Duplicate or reproduce.

  • Post on a web site.


Team-Based Learning™ (TBL)

A comprehensive strategy for using learning groups in a way that:

Harnesses the power of Teams.

Avoids potential problems.

Is effective in any course in which:

  • Content coverage is important.

  • The instructor is at leastas committed to developing students’ ability to apply content as he or she is to covering it.


My Course Objectives

Students should:

  • Master course content.

  • Be able to apply course content.

  • Develop interpersonal and group interaction skills.

  • Become life-long learners.

  • Enjoy the course.


Traditional Teaching vs. TBL Strategyfor DevelopingConcept Mastery:

  • Individual study (PRE-class)

  • Readiness Assurance Process

Traditional Teaching

Team-Based Learning

  • Lecture/Discussion

  • Individual study (pre-class or post-class?)


Preparation(Pre-class)

20%-30% of class time

70%-80% of class time

1. Individual Study

5. Instructor Input

2. Individual Test

3. Team Test

4. Written Appeals (teams)

Team-Based Learning™

  • Instructional Activity Sequence

    (Repeated for each major instructional unit, i.e., 5-7 per course)

Readiness AssuranceDiagnosis-Feedack

Application of Course ConceptsDevelopment of Students’Critical Thinking Skills


1 hour + or -

A few minutes to several hours (Integrative)

6. Application/Critical Thinking-focused Activities & Problems

5. Instructor Input

Team-Based Learning™• Instructional Activity Sequence (for each unit)

Readiness AssuranceDiagnosis-Feedback

Application of Course ConceptsDevelopment of Students’Critical Thinking Skills

Preparation(Pre-class)

1. Individual Study

2. Individual Test

3. Team Test

4. Written Appeals (teams)

  • Readiness Assurance Process Ensures:

    • Effective and efficient content coverage.

    • Development of real teams and team interaction skills.

    • An experience-based insight about the value of diverse input.

    • Development of students’ self-study & life-long learning skills.

    • Class time to develop students’ application/critical thinking skills.


Traditional Teaching vs. TBL Strategyfor DevelopingConcept Application Skills:

  • IN-CLASS Team Work

  • Specific choice tasks– to create discussion:

    • Within teams

    • Between teams

    • With/from instructor (to confirm/challenge & add to points made by students)

Traditional Teaching

Team-Based Learning

  • Class discussion?

  • Individual papers and/or projects

  • Group papers and/or projects (outside of class)


Traditional Teaching vs. TBL Strategyfor DevelopingInterpersonal and Team Skills:

  • In-class, decision-based tasks which promote discussion & provide immediate feedback to:

    • Ensure individual & team accountability.

    • Develop real teams.

    • Enhance students’ teamwork skills.

Traditional Teaching

Team-Based Learning

  • “Sink or Swim” at best.

  • Mostly individual (not group) work–done by “divide & conquer”

  • Promotes negative attitudes about group work (especially with top students.)


Traditional Teaching vs. TBL Strategyfor DevelopingLife-Long Learners:

Traditional Teaching

Team-Based Learning

  • Process creates competent and confident learners. They experience learning from:

    • Individual study.

    • Discussion with peers.

    • Choices/consequences (open book–much like “on the job training” )

  • Counterproductive (lectures promote dependence on instructor.)


The Readiness Assurance Process


Individual

Questions/

Team

Appeals***

Test*

Discussion

Test**

Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence

Mark both test &

answer sheet (4

points per line)


Individual

Questions/

Team

Appeals***

Test*

Discussion

Test**

Mark both test &

answer sheet (4

points per line)

Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence


Individual

Questions/

Team

Appeals***

Test*

Discussion

Test**

Mark both test &

answer sheet (4

points per line)

Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence


Individual

Questions/

Team

Appeals***

Test*

Discussion

Test**

Mark both test &

answer sheet (4

points per line)

Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence


Individual

Questions/

Team

Appeals***

Test*

Discussion

Test**

Mark both test &

answer sheet (4

points per line)

Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence


Individual

Questions/

Team

Appeals***

Test*

Discussion

Test**

Mark both test &

answer sheet (4

points per line)

Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence


Individual

Questions/

Team

Appeals***

Test*

Discussion

Test**

Mark both test &

answer sheet (4

points per line)

Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence


Individual

Questions/

Team

Appeals***

Test*

Discussion

Test**

Mark both test &

answer sheet (4

points per line)

Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence


Individual

Questions/

Team

Appeals***

Test*

Discussion

Test**

Mark both test &

answer sheet (4

points per line)

Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence

If you finish early:

  • Read the instructions for the:

  • team test

  • appeals

  • Collect the answer sheets and put them in the team folder.

Timing:


Individual

Questions/

Team

Appeals***

Test*

Discussion

Test**

Mark both test &

answer sheet (4

points per line)

Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence

Don’t forget – every member should record the team score on every question.

Timing:


Individual

Questions/

Team

Appeals***

Test*

Discussion

Test**

Mark both test &

answer sheet (4

points per line)

Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence

Timing:


Questions about the Readiness Assurance Process?

www.teambasedlearning.org


Spring 2013(10 teams)

Gain (or loss) based on comparing the score of each team to the score of its own BEST member.


Spring 2013(10 teams)

Gain (or loss) based on comparing the score of each team to the score of its own BEST member.


Spring 2013(10 teams)

Gain (or loss) based on comparing the score of each team to the score of its own BEST member.


Having only one individual score higher than the lowest team in an entire class is:

  • An unusually low number

  • About normal

  • More than normal—the lowest team score is usually higher than the best individual score.


Fall 2012(15 teams)

Gain (or loss) based on comparing the score of each team to the score of its own BEST member.


Spring 2012(15 teams)

Gain (or loss) based on comparing the score of each team to the score of its ownBEST member.


IBE at UCM (91/2years):

  • 1063 students in 165 teams.

  • 22 individuals higher than the lowest of 165 teams (2%).

  • Only 3 (of 19) classes had any individual score higher than the lowest team in the class.


Since 1986 — 6,555 students in 1,182 teams:

  • 1,181 teams scored higher than their own BEST member (99.9+% of teams).

  • 1 individual outscored his team (<.1% of teams).


Top students are treated unfairly if their grades are heavily influenced by group work.

True or False:

False!!!


Keys to Designing Effective Group Assignments


Effective Team Assignments

  • Significant Problem. Problem involves issues that are significant to students.

  • Same Problem. Individuals/groups are working on the same problem, case or question.

  • Specific Choice. Individuals/groups are required to use course concepts to make a specific choice.

  • Simultaneous Report. Individuals/groups report their choices simultaneously.

Maximum learning occurs when assignments at each stage are characterized by ”4 S’s":


Violating/omitting _____ would have the LEAST negative impact on the effectiveness of team assignments?

  • Significant problem

  • Same problem

  • Specific choice

  • Simultaneous report


Guaranteed

if:

Problems with Learning Groups?

  • Using class time for group work limits content coverage.

  • Grading group work results in:

    • Better students doing most of the work.

    • Less motivated and/or less able students becoming “free-riders.”

  • Using group assignments requires the instructor to:

    • Spend time resolving conflicts in groups.

    • Teach students how to work in groups.


Problems GUARANTEED if:

  • Individuals not accountable for being prepared for group work.

  • Groups create the deliverables to be graded outside of the class..

  • The form of the deliverables:

    • Requires students to create complex and professional-looking “products.”

    • Prevents students from receiving timely and unequivocal feedback on the thinking that went into their creation.

Beware:


Requiring lengthy documents (or group presentations) is at the heart of most of the really bad problems because:

  • The sensible approach is to divide-up the task of creating the final “product.” (Thus, it won’t actually be a group assignment).

  • Better students are forced to choose between doing more than their fair share of the work or facing the very real risk getting a bad grade.


Nearly 100%

Avoidable

by:

Problems with Learning Groups?

  • Using class time for group work limits content coverage.

  • Grading group work results in:

    • Better students doing most of the work.

    • Less motivated and/or less able students becoming “free-riders.”

  • Using group assignments requires the instructor to:

    • Spend time resolving conflicts in groups.

    • Teach students how to work in groups.


Problems AVOIDABLE by:

  • Individual accountability for PRE-class preparation for group work (Readiness Assurance Process).

  • Groups create the final product to be graded during class time.

  • Using 4 S’s group assignments:

    • Significant Problem. Problem involves issues that are significant to students.

    • Same Problem. Individuals/groups work on the same problem, case or question.

    • Specific Choice. Individuals/groups must use course concepts to make a specific choice.

    • Simultaneous Report. Individuals/groups report their choices simultaneously.


Questions?

www.teambasedlearning.org


Example Application: Muscle Physiology

The two finalists in the world arm-wrestling championships at Petaluma, California, are well-matched. Upper body muscle mass, insensitivity to pain, motivation, and experience are identical between the two. Vito, a Las Vegas bookie, slips you the results of each competitor’s physical exam and ‘asks’ you to predict the winner. What is most likely to determine the eventual winner?

  • Maximum cardiac output

  • Mitochondrial content of the exercising muscles

  • Muscle glycogen content

  • Oxygen carrying capacity of the blood

  • Phosphocreatine levels in the muscles


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