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JTF Training. Crisis Action Planning Course of Action Development. UNCLASSIFIED. Restated Mission Statement. O/O, CCDR CJTF will conduct Foreign Disaster Humanitarian Assistance in support of the Government of Cameroon to relieve the suffering associated with Volcano OKU.

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Crisis Action Planning Course of Action Development

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Crisis action planning course of action development

JTF Training

Crisis Action

Planning

Course of Action Development

UNCLASSIFIED


Crisis action planning course of action development

Restated Mission Statement

O/O, CCDR CJTF will conduct Foreign Disaster

Humanitarian Assistance in support of the

Government of Cameroon to relieve the

suffering associated with Volcano OKU.


Crisis action planning course of action development

Commander’s Intent

CCDR USAFRICOM CJTF will establish and deploy forces to forward operating bases to alleviate suffering in devastated areas. In coordination with the appropriate consular or AMEMBASSY personnel, US forces will provide mobility and logistics support capabilities to enhance HN efforts in response to the crisis. US forces will limit operations to essential life sustaining operations and where feasible will hand off FHA/DR function to other agencies as soon as practical. Close coordination with other USG agencies, NGO, and IGO will facilitate operations and eliminate duplication of efforts. When directed US forces redeploy to home station and reconstitute for future contingencies.

ENDSTATE. Success is defined as a minimized loss of life and human suffering of displaced persons, the scope of the crisis no longer exceeds the capacity of the host nations, and all US personnel are redeployed to home station.


Coa development overview

COA Development Overview

  • Analyze information associated with a current situation

  • Components, techniques and procedures for conducting an operational-level mission analysis for a Joint Task Force (JTF)

    • Suggested input into planning process

    • Logistical shortfalls in planning process

    • Adequate, feasible and acceptable COAs

    • COA steps

    • Center of gravity, task priorities, and phasing sketch


Crisis action planning course of action development

MULTINATIONAL FORCE

STANDING OPERATING PROCEDURES

(MNF SOP)

Version 1.6

February 2006

Reference

JP 3-0 Doctrine for Joint Operations

JP 4-0 Logistics

JP 5-0 Joint Operation Planning

JP 5-00.2 JTF Planning Guidance & Procedures

CJCS 3500.05A JTF HQ

Master Training Guide

MNF SOP


Key points

Develop a Military Course of Action

Key Points

Crisis Action Planning (CAP) Procedures:

  • Three process

  • Key Documents

    • Warning & Alert Orders

    • Commander’s Estimate

  • Requires Concurrent & Collaborative Planning


Cap functions

CAP Functions

ISituational Awareness

IIPlanning

III Execution


Cap process features

CAP Process Features

  • Rapid Exchange of Information

  • Analysis of situations affecting possible Courses of Action (COAs)

  • Developing valid COAs

  • Comparison COA

  • Recommended/Selecting the best COAs

  • Coordinating plans & order supporting execution


Function ii planning

Function II – Planning

I

Situational Awareness

II

Planning

III

Execution

  • JTF Tasks:

  • Mission Analysis

  • Issue Planning Guidance

  • Issue Warning Order

  • Develop COAs

  • Develop Staff Estimates

  • Analyze COAs

  • Compare COAs

  • Recommend COA

  • Submit CDR’s Estimate

National

Authorities

Warning

Order

CDR’s

Estimate

Supported

CCDR

CCDR’s

Warning

Order

CDR’s

Estimate

JFC

JTF PLANNING


Course of action coa development

Course of Action (COA) Development

  • The COA consist of the following information:

    • WHO will take the action

    • WHAT type of military action will occur

    • WHEN the action will begin

    • WHERE the action will occur

    • WHY the action is required (purpose)

    • HOW the action will occur (method of employment of forces)

      Joint Pub 5-0


Coa development

COA Development

  • To develop COAs, the staff must focus on key information to make decisions, using the data from mission analysis.

  • The Staff develops COAs to provide options to the commander.

  • Focus on Centers of Gravity and Decisive Points

  • All COAs selected must be valid


Develop initial coas

Develop Initial COAs

Center of Gravity (COG)

“The hub of all power and movement, on which everything

depends. That is the point against which all of our energies

should be directed.” Carl von Clausewitz

Military

Infrastructure

Economic

Social

Political

Information


Joint operation planning process

Joint Operation Planning Process


Crisis action planning course of action development

Initial Test for Validity

Course of Action Characteristics

  • Test for adequacy

  • Test for feasibility

  • Test for acceptability

  • Ensure COAs are distinguishable

  • Test for completeness


Adequate

Adequate

  • Does it accomplish the mission?

  • Does it meet the Combatant Commander’s and CJTF’s intent?

  • Does it accomplish all the essential tasks?

  • Does it allow the CJTF to meet the conditions for the end state?

  • Does it take into consideration the enemy and friendly centers of gravity?


Feasible

Feasible

  • Can accomplish the mission within the established time, space, and resource limitations?

    • Will those resources be available in the JOA in time?

      • Forces/Capability

      • Transportation

      • Resupply

      • Facilities

        - Can the COA be carried out within the

        physical environment’s constraints?


Acceptable

Acceptable

  • Must balance cost and risk with the advantage gained.

  • Does it contain unacceptable risks?

  • Does it take into account the limitations placed on the CTF?

  • Does it contribute to the higher commander’s strategic objectives?

  • Can it be accomplished within external constraints, particularly ROE?


Risk matrix

Fall of

Gov. C2

No HNS

LOG C2

Distro Probls

Early

EOM

Risk Matrix

HIGH

Impact

LOW

HIGH

Likelihood


Distinguishable

Distinguishable

  • Are the COAs sufficiently different from each other

  • COAs can be different when considering...

    • Focus or direction of main effort

    • Scheme of maneuver (land, air, maritime, special ops)

    • Primary mechanism for mission accomplishment

    • Task Organization

    • Use of reserves


Coa development1

COA Development

What to Avoid

Nested COAs

COA 1

COA 2

COA 3

COA 2 includes all of COA 1

COA 3 includes all of COAs 1 & 2


Coa planning enablers

COA Planning Enablers

  • Planning considerations in developing different COAs

    -Joint Force Capabilities (operational fires and maneuver, deception)

    -Joint Force Organizations

    -Combinations of elements of operational design (phasing line of operations and so forth)

    -Commander and staff risk assessment

    -Intelligence updates

Joint Pub 5-0


Complete

Complete

  • Are the COAs technically complete? Must incorporate:

    • Objectives, effects and tasks to be performed

    • Major forces required

    • Concepts for development, employment and sustainment

    • Time estimates for achieving objectives

    • Military end state and success criteria


Coa planning enablers1

COA Planning Enablers

Key Inputs

  • Joint Force

    Commander’s (JFC)

    Planning Guidance

  • JFC Initial Intent

  • Initial Staff Estimates

  • Joint Intelligence

    Preparation of the

    Operational

    Environment

Key Outputs

  • Revised Staff Estimates

  • COA Alternatives including

    -Tentative task organization

    -Deployment concept

    -Sustainment concept

COA

Development


Prepare coa

Prepare COA

  • Develop COA sketch(s)

  • Deployment/Sustainment Concept

  • Operational design

    • Phasing

    • Line of operations


Coa 1

COA 1

ALOC

HOME BASE

US

C2 HUB

Country 1

ALOC

COA 1

Sail direct to Country 2

Deploy land forces to

Country 1 -- to control flow of

troops into Country 2

Unrep

Country 2

APOD

SPOD


Coa 2

COA 2

COA 2

Sail and deploy land forces

direct to Country 1

HOME BASE

ALOC

Unrep

Country 1

APOD

SPOD


Example sketch

X

Example Sketch

PHASE THREE: Decisive Action

MARFOR:

O/O conduct offensive

operations to secure

northern approaches

to City T

ARFOR:

Deploy ACR to forward

AA. O/O conduct

offensive operations to

clear central and southern

approaches. Air Aslt/Abn

Bde est. opnl reserve and

rear area defense.

AFFOR:

Maintain air superiority.

Conduct AI and strat atk

operations.

NAVFOR:

No change

JSOTF:

No change

XX

City T

City G

C+31 to C+60

This phase completes the introduction of combat forces (Phase II) and begins offensive operations to evict all aggressors from the sovereign territory of Blueland. Operations will be conducted along two axes. Phase is complete upon restoration of territorial integrity of Blueland.


Example phasing task distribution

DEPLOYMENT

SHAPING

DECISIVE OPS

TRANSITION

Halt, Protect & Defend

Eject & Eliminate

Protect/Defend Guppie/Nessie/SLOCs

Eliminate Piranha Ability to Proj Pwr

Turn over to HN Forces

Freedom of Navigation

MARITIME Superiority

Initiate IO Campaign

AIR Superiority

Establish FOB

HA - Saipan/Tin

HA Turnover

EPW MGMT

Seize Saipan

IDP MGMT

Seize Tinian

Redeploy

BPT NEO

BPT MIO

BPT CM

HA Coord

CFLCC

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

CFMCC

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

CFACC

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

CSOTF

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

CPOTF

X

X

CMOTF

X

X

X

X

X

X

CCTF

X

X

X

X

X

- Phase Main Effort/Task Supported Commander

- Task Supported Commander

- Task Supporting Commander

Example Phasing/Task Distribution


Example log effects matrix

SUSTAIN

(Example) Log Effects Matrix

PHASE 1

Pre-Deployment

PHASE 2

Deploy/ RSOI/ Coalition Force Integration

PHASE 3

Move

PHASE 4

Prevention &

Stabilisation

PHASE 5

Offensive Ops/ Assistance/ Stabilisation/ Deterrence

PHASE 6

Handover

RECOVER

LOG build-up

LOG INTEGRATION

RSOI

SUPPORT LOG C2 OF UN/IO/NGO AGENCIES


Joint operation planning process1

Joint Operation Planning Process


Crisis action planning course of action development

COA Wargaming

  • The Commander and Staff will Analyze each tentative COA

    separately and identify advantages and disadvantages of each

    Proposed COA.

  • The analysis of COAs should reveal the following factors:

    • Potential decision points

    • Task organization adjustments

    • Data for use in a synchronization matrix or other decision making tools

    • Identification of plan branches and sequels

    • Identification of high-value targets

    • A risk assessment.

    • COA advantages and disadvantages

    • Recommended CCIR’s


Coa wargaming steps

COA Wargaming Steps

  • 2. Conduct Wargaming and assess

  • -Purpose of wargaming (identify gaps)

  • -Basic methodology

  • -Records results

  • 3. Output of wargaming:

  • -Results of wargame brief

  • Potential decision points

  • Governing factors

  • Potential branches and sequels

  • Revised staff estimates

  • Refined COAs

  • Feedback through the COA decision brief

1. Prepare for Wargaming

-Gather tools

-List and review Friendly forces

-List and review enemy forces

-List known critical events

-Determine participates

-Determine enemy COA

-Select wargaming method

-Select a method to record &

display results (Syn Matrix)


Coa maritime

COA (MARITIME)

HOME BASE

US

Country 2

Refuel Operations

Refueling Operations

COA reflects refueling

shortfall in support

of timeline and distance

Country 1

APOD

SPOD

USNS COMFORT


Joint operation planning process2

Joint Operation Planning Process


Coa comparison

COA Comparison

Key Outputs

Key Inputs

  • Evaluated COAs

  • Recommended COA

  • COA Selection Rational

  • Revised Staff Estimates

  • Advantages &

    Disadvantages

  • Wargaming Results

  • Governing Factors

  • Revised staff estimates

COA

Comparison


Coa comparison1

COA Comparison

Example


Joint operation planning process3

Joint Operation Planning Process


Crisis action planning course of action development

COA Approval

  • The staff determines the best COA to the commander.

  • The staff briefs the commanders on the COA comparison

    (approval inputs and outputs)

  • The staff briefs the comparison and analysis and

    wargaming results.

  • The commander selects a COA or forms an alternate COA.

    -Direct revisions to COAs

    - Combinations of COAs

    - Additional COAs


Joint operation planning process4

Joint Operation Planning Process


Products jtf plan

Products JTF Plan

  • Basic Plan/OPORD - Paragraph 4, Administration and Logistics

  • Annex D - Logistics

  • Annex L – Environmental Considerations

  • Annex P – Host-Nation Support

  • Annex Q – Medical Services

  • Others as appropriate (Contracting, etc.)


Questions

Questions?


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