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LATER DYNASTIES OF CHINA. Sui Yuan Tang Ming Song Qing. After the fall of the Han Dynasty, military leaders split China into rival kingdoms, which led to a period of warfare called the Period of Disunion

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Later dynasties of china





Later dynasties of china

  • After the fall of the Han Dynasty, military leaders split China into rival kingdoms, which led to a period of warfare called the Period of Disunion

    • Lasted for more than 350 years and ended when a northern ruler named Wendi reunified China and founded the Sui dynasty

Sui dynasty 581 to 618

Sui Dynasty 581 to 618

  • Wendi was the first emperor of the dynasty and was also known as Yang Jian

    • He reunified China

    • He also established a centralized govt and restored order

  • His son, Emperor Sui Yangdi, built the Grand Canal that linked northern and southern China

    • It was a 1,000 mile waterway that made it easier to trade and ship rice

    • Millions of peasants were forced to work on the Grand Canal and hundreds of thousands died

  • High taxes and military failures led to Yangdis assassination and the end of the dynasty

Tang dynasty 618 to 907

Tang Dynasty 618 to 907

  • A Sui general seized power and founded the Tang dynasty, which was a period of prosperity and cultural achievement

    • Tang rulers began by instituting reforms, such as giving land to peasants, and restoring the civil service exam

    • China also expanded, regaining lands in Central Asia, along with gaining influence over Korea

    • Many early Tang rulers were Buddhists, although Buddhism lost official favor later on

    • Trade revived and the Silk Road once again prospered

    • Wu Zhao first and only female emperor

Later dynasties of china

  • Inventions

    • Invented gunpowder used mostly for fireworks

      • Fire-lance: weapon that shot out flame and projectiles up to 40 yards

    • Perfected the magnetic compass

      • Sailors could more accurately determine direction and navigate

    • Developed woodblock printing

      • Books could be mass produced

  • Govt corruption, high taxes, nomadic invasions, and peasant rebellions all led to the decline of the Tang dynasty

    • A powerful general killed the emperor, ending the dynasty

Song dynasty 960 to 1279

Song Dynasty 960 to 1279

  • After the Tang, China once again split apart until it was reunified under the Song Dynasty

    • Under the Song, Chinese civilization became the most advanced in the world

  • Enlarged the govt bureaucracy and reformed the civil service exam

    • Exams tested students knowledge of Confucianism

    • Those who passed the exam became scholar-officials, the elite educated members of the govt

      • The exams were a pathway to gain wealth and status

Later dynasties of china

  • Scholar-gentry = landed aristocrats who produced most of the candidates for the civil service exam political and economic elite of China

  • Invasions by northern tribes forced the Song to move the imperial court farther south, but eventually they were conquered by the Mongols, leading to foreign rule in China

  • The mongols

    The Mongols

    • The Mongols were nomadic people who were fierce warriors and skilled horsemen

      • Were divided into separate clans, each ruled by a khan, or chief

      • One khan, Temujin, conquered his rivals and united the Mongol clans

        • He took the title Genghis Khan, which means universal ruler

    • Genghis Khan organized the Mongols into a powerful military machine and his armies were highly mobile and could strike quickly

      • Used brutality and psychological warfare

    Later dynasties of china

    • Many people surrendered without a fight

  • With his armies, Genghis Khan created the largest land empire in history, controlling much of the Eurasian landmass

    • On his death, his empire was divided into four parts and given to his heirs

    • His grandson, Kublai Khan, completed the conquest of China

  • Yuan dynasty 1279 to 1368

    Yuan Dynasty 1279 to 1368

    • Kublai Khan defeated the last Song ruler and had himself declared emperor

      • This was the first time foreigners ruled China

      • He established his capital at future Beijing

        • Explorer Marco Polo was greatly impressed by this city

    • Kublai Khan kept the Chinese govt system in place, but its highest positions were staffed by Mongols

      • He distrusted the Chinese and limited their power

      • Mongols were made to live apart from the Chinese

    Later dynasties of china

    • Kublai Khan tried to expand his empire

      • Sent several invading forces into Southeast Asia, which all failed

      • He also tried to invade Japan twice, but failed again

    • These military losses, along with Chinese resentment of foreign rule, led to rebellion that ended the Yuan dynasty

    Ming dynasty 1368 to 1644

    Ming Dynasty 1368 to 1644

    • A peasant and his rebel army overthrew Mongol ruled and established a new dynasty, taking the title Emperor Hongwu

      • Hongwu reduced taxes and passed reforms to improve agriculture and trade

      • He also greatly expanded his powers as emperor, taking over more control of the govt

        • Ming emperors were more powerful than previous emperors

    • Ming rulers gained control of Korea, Mongolia, and parts of Asia

    Later dynasties of china

    • The Ming capital was established at Beijing

      • In the center the vast Imperial City was built, also known as the Forbidden City

    • One Ming ruler sponsored overseas voyages

      • Chinese admiral Zheng He led seven voyages that explored Southeast Asia, India, the Arabian Peninsula, and the east coast of Africa

      • Zheng He travelled with 300 ships

    • Made contact with the first Europeans since Marco Polo, the Portuguese

      • Restricted foreign trade to a few ports

      • Ming disliked the influence of Europeans, especially the missionaries wanted to preserve Chinas traditions

    Later dynasties of china

    • The Ming emperors decided to isolate China from the outside world

  • The main artistic achievement was the porcelain Ming vases

  • Decline due to weak rulers, corruption, and high taxes, which all leads to a peasant revolt

    • The Manchus, a group of people who live in Manchuria, invade and conquer the peasant revolt

    • The last Ming emperor commits suicide and the Manchus establish a dynasty

  • Qing dynasty 1644 to 1911

    Qing Dynasty 1644 to 1911

    • The Manchus established the Qing dynasty, which would be the last dynasty of China

    • The Manchus adopted the Chinese political system and shared power with them

      • Showed respect for Chinese customs and maintained Confucian traditions

      • Remained separate from the Chinese and placed restrictions on them

    • In order to better identify rebels, the Qing govt ordered all men to adopt Manchu dress and hairstyles

      • Men had to adopt the queue = hair style in which the front is shaved with a braid or ponytail in the back

    Later dynasties of china

    • Missionaries were allowed to enter China

      • Qing emperors entertained Jesuit priests to learn about European intellectual advances

    • Foreign relations

      • Conquered Taiwan and Tibet

      • The Dutch began a thriving trade in Chinese goods

        • Had to accept Chinas terms

    • The Qing dynasty would eventually fall to rebellion in 1911, mostly due to increasing Western influence and the efforts of European imperialism in the 1800s

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