Swimming  &  Locomotion
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Swimming & Locomotion. Major types of locomotion in fishes. Walking frogfishes Crawling sea robins Swimming most fishes. Antennariidae warty frogfish Antennarius maculatus. The swimming mechanism. Muscles Propulsive waves. Swimming modes. Body musculature. Fin musculature.

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Swimming & Locomotion

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Swimming locomotion

Swimming & Locomotion


Major types of locomotion in fishes

Major types of locomotion in fishes

  • Walking

    • frogfishes

  • Crawling

    • sea robins

  • Swimming

    • most fishes


Swimming locomotion

Antennariidae

warty frogfish

Antennarius maculatus


The swimming mechanism

The swimming mechanism

  • Muscles

  • Propulsive waves


Swimming locomotion

Swimming modes

Body musculature

Fin musculature


Swimming locomotion

Swimming modes (body musculature)


Swimming locomotion

Swimming

modes


S wimming examples

Swimming examples

Thunniform – Carangiform swimming

Labriform swimming


Musculature myotomes

Musculature myotomes


Swimming locomotion

Red

Epiaxial or dorsal

muscles

hypaxial or ventral

muscles


Distribution of red muscle

Distribution of red muscle


Distribution of red muscle1

Distribution of red muscle

Bluefin tuna

Ectotherm

fishes

Red

muscle

Mako shark

Skipjack tuna


Swimming locomotion

  • Propulsive wave

    • Progressive tailward passage

    • Push force

    • Reactive force

    • Forward thrust component

    • Lift or slippage component

P

T

R

L


Swimming locomotion

Progressive swimming undulation wave


Swimming locomotion

Swimming Forces

Thrust - Drag

Gravity - Lift + Buoyancy


Lift force

Lift Force

  • Static lift

    • Swim bladder

    • Lipids / Oils

  • Dynamic Lift

    • Pectoral fin rotation

    • Pectoral hydrofoil shape


Drag forces i

Drag forces I

  • Frictional or Viscous Drag

    • Boundary layer: non-moving water layer that creates friction with surrounding water

    • Not speed related

    • To reduce frictional drag:

      • Mucous

      • Reduction surface area

      • Ctenoid scales

      • Placoid scales


Frictional drag flow separation

Frictional Drag (Flow separation)


Swimming locomotion

Ctenoid scales

Placoid scales


Drag forces ii

Drag forces II

  • Pressure or Inertial Drag

    • Caused by pressure differences

    • Drag increases with speed

    • To reduce pressure drag:

      • Streamline shape

        • Width-length ratio = 0.25

        • Thickest cross-section 2/5 from mouth

        • Long and narrow wing-like pectoral fins for lift

        • Body depressions for retracting paired & median fins


Pressure and frictional drag

Pressure and frictional drag


High speed streamlined fishes

High speed streamlined fishes


Caudal keel

Caudal keel


Swimming locomotion

Caudal fin shapes high aspect ratio (thunniform swimming)

Scombridae

Bigeye tuna

Thunnus obesus


Swimming locomotion

Caudal fin shapes high/medium aspect ratio (carangiform swimming)

Carangidae

Jacks

Caranx melampygus


Swimming locomotion

Caudal fin shapes low aspect ratio (subcarangiform swimming)

Serranidae

Nassau grouper

Epinephelus striatus


Swimming locomotion

Caudal fin shapes low aspect ratio (subcarangiform swimming)

Esocidae

Northern pike

Esox lucius


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