Central eastern european absolutism part ii
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 49

Central & Eastern European Absolutism- Part II PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 113 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Central & Eastern European Absolutism- Part II. Austria Prussia Russia. Austria. THIRTY YEARS’ WAR Lost ability to compete with Western Europe Instead aimed internally and at Bohemia and Hungary. Austria. Versus Ottomans Ottoman private property Sultan system of rule

Download Presentation

Central & Eastern European Absolutism- Part II

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Central & Eastern European Absolutism- Part II

  • Austria

  • Prussia

  • Russia


Austria

  • THIRTY YEARS’ WAR

    • Lost ability to compete with Western Europe

    • Instead aimed internally and at Bohemia and Hungary


Austria

  • Versus Ottomans

    • Ottoman private property

      • Sultan

      • system of rule

      • No Suleiman (see pic)

      • Bureaucracy???

        • Christian slaves

        • Not smart ones became Janissaries

    • Thrived on Christian tribute

      • Religiously tolerant

      • Often kinder rulers than Christian emperors

    • Butted heads with Habsburgs (and Russians)


The Golden Age of the Ottomans


“Golden Horn”


The Ottoman Capital -- Constantinople


The Fall of Constantinople: 1453


Europeans vs. Turks


The End of the Byzantine Empire


Hagia Sophia


Hagia Sophia


Hagia Sophia - interior


Illuminated Qur’an Page


Janissaries


Battle of Lepanto (1571)


Austria

  • Versus Bohemia

    • Bohemia fell during Thirty Years’ War

      • Protestant nobility crushed and replaced

  • Versus Hungary

    • Conquered by Habsburgs but never fully pacified

    • Surviving nobility were highly influenced by Protestantism

    • Revolt against Habsburgs under Prince Rakoczy  failed but gained significant independence

    • Helped in revolts by Ottomans

  • Charles VI and the Pragmatic Sanction


Charles VI (r. 1711-1740)


Prussia

  • Blown apart by Thirty Years War… must face East

  • Geographical limitations

    • ‘sandbox of Europe’

    • No natural physical barriers

  • Military is used to build the state

  • Junkers

    • Landowning Prussian nobility

    • Given status as head of military and complete domination of their serfs in exchange for loss of real political power


Prussia & the Austrian Empire: 1721-72


Prussia

  • Great Elector

    • Why called this?

    • His goal- to weaken the local estates (regional parliaments) and build absolutism

    • War during his reign (against Sweden and Poland and in response to raids by the Tartars) allowed Great Elector to subjugate the Prussian Estates

      • The nobles were forced to choose security over independence

    • Bureaucracy and standing army basically the same thing

      • For example, soldier’s collected taxes


Prussia

  • The Soldiers’ King

    • Solidified absolutism

    • Military nut

      • Lived a rigidly militaristic life

    • Built incredible army…

      • Tall soldiers

      • Prussia- 12th largest population, but 4th largest army

    • Exemplified hard work and living simply

    • Sparta of the North

    • Never ‘spent’ his soldiers

Frederick William I


King Frederick I of Prussia (r.1701-1713)

The Soldier’s King


Russia

  • European or not?

    • Yes – Geography, ethnicity, and desire

    • But…

      • Mongol Invasion

        • Mongol Legacy on the Tsars

          • Absoluter and terribler power (similar to Ottoman)

          • Missed the Renaissance - remain medieval/feudal

        • Rise of Muscovite Russians

          • Best suck-ups to Mongolians

  • Ivans kicked out the Khans

  • Newly independent Russians saw themselves as the ‘Third Rome’

    • Fall of Byzantine Empire (Constantinople) to Ottomans

    • Religion – Eastern Orthodox

    • Caesar- tsar


Population Center


The Mongols Invade Russia


Early Russia


Early Byzantine Influences:Orthodox Christianity


Early Byzantine Influences:Orthodox Christianity


Ivan the Great (r. 1462-1505)

Ivan III Tearing the Great Khan’s Letter Requesting More Tribute in 1480.


Russia

  • Taming of the Boyars by the Ivans

    • Khan-like

      • Tsar had enormous land-holdings

    • Service nobility

      • Got land, had to serve in army  relatively weak

    • Ivan the Terrible

      • Used ‘secret police’ to crush peasants further

      • Nobles, in turn, ruthlessly oppressed their own peasants

      • Even merchants were bound to their cities

    • Cossacks

      • Repeated uprisings

    • Tsars almost literally owned everything in Russia

  • Romanov line

    • Because of peasant revolts, the Romanovs restored some rights to nobles, to unify with them against the peasants


Russian Boyars


Russia

  • Peter the Great

    • Militaristic

    • Great Northern War

    • Promotion by ability

    • Complete domination of the nobility

    • Desire for a warm water port

      • fight with Ottomans- Black Sea

      • Fight with Swedes- Baltic

      • This is a recurring theme for Russia

    • Westernization, but mainly for military gain

      • Grand Tour

      • Europeans brought in to train Russians

      • Beard Law


Peter the Great (r. 1682-1725)


Russia & Sweden After the Great Northern War


Mimicry of French Absolutism

  • Royal Cities

    • St. Petersburg

      • Window to the West

      • Built from scratch at great cost to nobility and peasants… evidence of absolutism

      • Evidence of military victories

    • Broad straight avenues radiating out from the center

  • Palaces Like Versailles


Schönbrunn Palace


Versailles


Schönbrunn Palace


Baroque

  • 1600 – 1750.

  • From a Portuguese word “barocca”, meaning “a pearl of irregular shape.”

  • Implies strangeness, irregularity, and extravagance.

  • The more dramatic, the better!


Baroque

  • Emotional

  • Appeals to the commoner

  • Grew out of the Catholic Reformation

  • Used by Absolutists


St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican Cityby Gialorenzo Bernini


Church of Santiago de Compostella, Spain


Church of Veltenberg Altar, Germany


“The Assumption of the Virgin Mary”Egid Quirim Asam, 1692-1750


Altar of Mercy, Germany, 1764


“David and Goliath” by Caravaggio


“St. Bonaventure on His Deathbed”Francisco de Zurbarán, 1629


“Battle of the Amazons”Peter Paul Reubens


Baroque Furniture


  • Login