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Applying Advanced Water Treatment Technology in the Largest Facility in North America. Chad Hill, Vice President – Black & Veatch. Cryptosporidium. Giardia. Virus. Algae. Bacteria. The Enemies …. National Focus Shifts to Water. 1993 - Cryptosporidium outbreak in Milwaukee

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Applying Advanced Water Treatment Technology in the Largest Facility in North America

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Applying Advanced Water Treatment Technology in the Largest Facility in North America

Chad Hill, Vice President – Black & Veatch


Cryptosporidium

Giardia

Virus

Algae

Bacteria

The Enemies …

Page - 2


National Focus Shifts to Water

  • 1993 - Cryptosporidium outbreak in Milwaukee

    • 403,000 illnesses

    • Estimated 100+ deaths

    • 25 lawsuits, continuing over 6 years ($millions)

    • They never violated any drinking water standards.

      • Data Source: New England Journal of Medicine, July 21, 1994, Vol. 331, No. 3, pp 161-167.

Page - 3


Page - 4


Time Had Come to Reinvest in Water Utility

  • 1900’s facilities ready for retirement

  • 1994 - Wide-scale "Study" of treatment plants began at Minneapolis

  • 1994 – 1999 Studies found:

    • Watershed is much more vulnerable to “Crypto” than Milwaukee

    • Recommended 99.9999% removal (6.0 LRV) to address the risk (note: later EPA regulations are less stringent)

    • "Microsporidium" found (elsewhere) even smaller than "Crypto"

Page - 5


Module Divisions for even flow distribution

Highly porous

membrane

By-pass tubes

Solution - Ultrafiltration Membranes

Page - 6


How to Sell a $160M Program

  • Sincere and prudent approach

  • Gain grass roots support

    • Public Health officials

    • Academia

    • Citizen advocacy groups

    • Regulators

  • Work closely and often with Council and Mayor

Page - 7


MIX / COAG. / FLOC. / SETTLE

SOFTENING

75 MG

RECARBONATION

RESERVOIR

ULTRAFILTRATION

RESERVOIR

SAND FILTERS

MWW Treatment System

BYPASS

Mississippi

RIVER

TO DISTRIBUTION

Page - 8


Ultrafiltration Equipment

Page - 9


The Numbers

  • 377 square feet of Membrane surface per module (about 9,600 fibers per module)

  • 4 modules per vessel

  • 28 vessels per UF Unit

  • 40 UF Units

  • 1,688,960 sq. feet of Membrane Area

  • 43,008,000 = total number of fibers

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How Much Did it Cost?

  • Ultrafiltration equipment

    • $17 Million

  • Building, installation ancillary plant

    • $ 36 Million

Page - 16


Acknowledgements

  • Adam J. Kramer, P.E.

    • Director of Water Works (Retired 6/3/05)

  • Shahin Rezania, P.E.

    • Interim Director of Water Works

  • Dale Folen, P.E.

    • Project Manager

  • Annika Bankston, P.E.

    • Project Engineer, Membrane Specialist

  • Dozens of other City Employees

  • 100+ Black & Veatch Staff

Page - 17


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