MEDIA AND WOMEN’S ECONOMIC PROGRESS
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MEDIA AND WOMEN’S ECONOMIC PROGRESS - Korean Case. JOANNE LEE May 29, 2004 GLOBAL SUMMIT OF WOMEN SEOUL, KOREA. C ONTENT. 1. Preface 2. Status of Women in Korean Economy In General Historical Overview Barriers Changing Issues 3. Policy & Institutional Reforms

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JOANNE LEE May 29, 2004 GLOBAL SUMMIT OF WOMEN SEOUL, KOREA

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Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

MEDIA AND WOMEN’S ECONOMIC PROGRESS

- Korean Case

JOANNE LEE

May 29, 2004

GLOBAL SUMMIT OF WOMEN

SEOUL, KOREA


Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

CONTENT

1. Preface

2. Status of Women in Korean Economy

In General

Historical Overview

Barriers

Changing Issues

3. Policy & Institutional Reforms

1994 Beijing Platform for Action

1997 Asian Financial Crisis

4. Women’s Economic Role In Korean Mass Media

In General

As Consumers

As Entrepreneurs

As Workers

5. Recommendations

6. The Brave New World

GLOBAL SUMMIT OF WOMEN 2004


Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

  • I. PREFACE

  • Historically, Korean women have been alienated, discriminated against and underutilized in the work place.

  • Women’s economic role has been largely overlooked or wrongly stereotyped and perpetuated by the media, though it is beginning to change for the better.

  • The financial crisis of 1997 brought the realization that Korea needed to adopt global standards to survive and prosper in today’s interconnected global market.

  • Integration of educated women into workforce and full utilization of their potential is a must for Korea to reach its goal of $20,000 per capita economy.

  • Mass media has an important role to play in changing and promoting women’s economic profile for the future.

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Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

II. STATUS OF WOMEN IN KOREAN ECONOMY

In General

Korean Bureau of Statistics Jul. 2004

  • Women active in economic field

    1994-47.8% of female population

    2003-49.6% of female population(vs OECD 61.3%)

    (9.56Million / 19.28Mil)

  • Women’s pay scale

    1990- 55% of men

    2001- 64.3% of men

    2002-63.9% of men

  • Public pension fund participation

    Women31%VSMen 65%

    (Average life expectancy Female 85Male 77 )

GLOBAL SUMMIT OF WOMEN 2004


Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

II. STATUS OF WOMEN IN KOREAN ECONOMY

Historical Overview

GLOBAL SUMMIT OF WOMEN 2004


Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

II. STATUS OF WOMEN IN KOREAN ECONOMY

Barriers

  • Ingrained gender stereotyping in education from early childhood

    - Text Book

    - Teacher Counseling

  • Gender discriminatory practices in employment and work environment

  • Lack of child care facilities and support

  • Inflexible work hours Vicious cycle of M curve

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Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

II. STATUS OF WOMEN IN KOREAN ECONOMY

Changing Issues

1960-1970

1980

1990

2003

CHEAP LABOR FACTORY WORKERS

FEMALE MANAGERS

CLERKS

LONELY FEW

OFFICE WORK

PRESSURE FOR EQUALITY

PROFESSIONALIZATION

Cost Advantage

Convenience Supplementary Role

Token Case “Glass Wall”

15-20% Critical Mass

Business Necessity

ISSUES : 90’S DISCRIMINATION & UNDERUTILIZATION

2000’s LEADERSHIP & WIN-WIN

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Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

II. STATUS OF WOMEN IN KOREAN ECONOMY

Discriminations

Yonhap News Service Feb. 24, 2004

  • Survey of 2, 347 female workers by MINISTRY of LABOR & JOB KOREA CO.

    60.8%Discrimination in assignments

    58.3%Limited promotion

    45.8%Maternity leave will hamper career

    15.9%Pressured to quit when married

  • Survey of 2, 325 married female workers aged 20-30

    52.5%Experienced discrimination when married

    36.1%Received pressure to leave when pregnant

    16.6%Reduction / Freeze in pay

    15.9%Exempted from promotion

    70 %Quit

GLOBAL SUMMIT OF WOMEN 2004


Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

II. STATUS OF WOMEN IN KOREAN ECONOMY

Discriminations

Yonhap News Service Feb. 24, 2004

  • Survey of 1, 205 married w / no children

    39.5%For lack of child care facilities

    17.8%Child care expense too heavy

    20 %Planning no children

  • Solution

    41.9%Government

    24.3%Business

    23.2%Social Prejudice

    5.2%Self

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Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

II. STATUS OF WOMEN IN KOREAN ECONOMY

Underutilization of Women

Employment by Age by Country

Why Avoid Women?

1997 Survey of 100 Large Business KWDI

28%Low Loyalty

14%Quit Easily

14%Business Trip / Night Work

14%Poor Integration into Organization

11%Work Not Suitable For Women

8%More Absences

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Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

II. STATUS OF WOMEN IN KOREAN ECONOMY

Vicious Cycle of M Curve

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Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

III. POLICY & INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS

  • 1995- Beijing Platform for Action

  • 1995.10 - “Women’s Development Act”

    - Gender Equality Roadmap

    - 30% Representation of women in broadcasting oversight

    committees by 2005

    - Creation of objective standards to evaluate gender based

    stereotypes in mass media

    - Legal basis for rectifying gender discriminatory factors in

    employment & other areas

  • 1997- Asian Financial Crisis

  • 1998- D.J. Kim Administration

    Pro-women Policy Implementation

  • 2001.1 - “Ministry of Gender Equality”

    Woman Korea : A McKinsey Report

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Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

III. POLICY & INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS

  • 2001.11 - “Protection of Motherhood “ Act

  • “Women’s Economic Development” Act

  • 2003. 3- Revision of “Women’s Development Act”

  • 2003. 6- “Promotion of Women in Science & Technology” Act

  • 2003. 7- Affirmative Action for Female Teachers in Public Universities

    (20% Goal 2003 – 2007)

  • 2004. 1- “Child Care” Act

    Transfer of child care division to Ministry of Gender Equality from Ministry of Health & Welfare

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Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

IV. WOMEN’S ECONOMIC ROLE IN KOREAN MASS MEDIA

Media Coverages in General

Up to 1990’s:

  • Perpetuation of gender biased stereotypes

  • Lack of interest, little coverages of women as economic entities

  • Shallow, passive reporting of statistics or releases given by other sources

  • No in-depth or investigative stories on women entrepreneurs except as novelties

  • One dimensional view of women as passive consumers

    2000’s:

  • Increasing coverages of rising “women power” phenomenon

  • Trendy stories of venture CEO’s, IT, Entertainment Stars

  • Increasing visibility of women in politics, civil society, government and business

  • Still view business women as exceptions rather than norm

    ex. Web Search of Maeil Economic Daily (www.mk.co.kr)

    “Women” ( 0 ) Directory on Economy (53) Directory on Shopping/Beauty/Health

    ( 1 ) Site(2603) Sites

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Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

IV. WOMEN’S ECONOMIC ROLE IN KOREAN MASS MEDIA

Media Coverages in General

2004 :

  • Notable increase in coverages of women’s activities in general due to national election and affirmative action.

    Ex.“Child Care Should be Borne by Public Funding”

    “Women CEO Leadership Forum” – Women Times

    “Women Workers in Banking Paid Half of Male Counterparts”

    “Great Leap Forward for Women in New Hires & Government Exams”

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Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

IV. WOMEN’S ECONOMIC ROLE IN KOREAN MASS MEDIA

Digital Times 2004.2Chosun Ilbo 2004.1

As Consumers

  • Control 90% of Department Store Sales

  • Decision Makers and Spenders of 80% of Household Disposable Income

  • Major Influence on Purchase of Big Ticket Items such as Houses, Cars, Furniture, Appliances, Family Vacations, etc. - Advertising

  • Over 100 Consumer Magazines Targeted for Women

  • “Cyber Women Power” – Internet Shopping by Volume

    20002003

    Male12.5%27.4%

    Female12 %37 %

    Ex. <Interpark>- Largest Cyber MallFemale Purchase2001.138%

    www.interpark.com2003.853%

    <Auction(E-bay)>199919%

    www.auction.co.kr200141%

    200344%

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Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

IV. WOMEN’S ECONOMIC ROLE IN KOREAN MASS MEDIA

Chosun Ilbo 2004.1

As Consumers

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Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

IV. WOMEN’S ECONOMIC ROLE IN KOREAN MASS MEDIA

Small Medium Industry Authority 2003.8

As Entrepreneurs

Coverages of Successful Professionals, CEO’s

Housewife – Turned Entrepreneurs

TREND20% Increase in 5 years

1997 :924,380Women owned businesses

2000 :1,021,515Women owned businesses

2002 :1,147,664Women owned businesses

PROFITABLEProfit AverageKRW 21.5 Mil.

Sales AverageKRW 164.6 Mil. – 13.1% P/S

vs Industry Avg. 2.7% P/S

LOW DEBT RATIO64.3% vsIndustry Avg. 173.7%

EMPLOYMENT2003Full-time Employment2.13Mil. Avg. 2.06 persons

2001Full-time EmploymentAvg. 3.5 persons

DISADVANTAGE AS WOMEN199940.8%

200326.5%

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Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

IV. WOMEN’S ECONOMIC ROLE IN KOREAN MASS MEDIA

Chosun Ilbo 2004.1

As Entrepreneurs

Coverages of Successful Professionals, CEO’s

Housewife – Turned Entrepreneurs

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Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

IV. WOMEN’S ECONOMIC ROLE IN KOREAN MASS MEDIA

As Workers

ILO(2000)

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Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

V. RECOMMENDATIONS

CHANGE THE MEDIA’S ROLE FROM PASSIVE OBSERVER TO THAT OF AN

INSTIGATOR & LEADER IN WOMEN’S ISSUES

AFFIRMATIVE ACTION

  • Increase women’s participation and access to decision-making process in media enterprises

    - Set goals & targets for gender balance in employment & management

    - Create gender friendly environment

    - Flexible work schedules

    - Establish mentoring systems in media

    MEDIA WATCH

  • Promote a balanced and non-stereo typed portrayal of women in mainstream media as active contributors to national economy and vital element for achieving national goals

  • Balance assignments on “Soft” issues such as fashion, culture, arts,, etc. with “Core” issues of politics, economy and current affairs

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Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

V. RECOMMENDATIONS

ORGANIZE SUSTAINED MEDIA CAMPAIGN

  • Change gender biases & stereotypes

  • Empower women in economic progress

  • Expand news coverages of women sourced by women or with women’s perspectives

  • Promote and educate the public that … utilization of women’s resources is a must for Korea’ survival in 21c

    PUNISHMENTS AND INCENTIVES

GLOBAL SUMMIT OF WOMEN 2004


Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

THE WOMEN’S NEWS. INC.

http://www.womennews.co.kr

  • Founded in 1988 after the Seoul Olympics through public stock offering.

  • Weekly 32 page tabloid format with readership of 98,000

  • Led the feminist movement and became the voice of women’s activism for gender equality

  • Set the agenda for women’s issues in national & presidential elections

  • Initiated & hosted presidential candidates’ TV debates on women’s issues

  • Still financially vulnerable

    Focus

  • Up to 2003- Feminist Activism for improved status of women

    - Political, Social Agenda including violence against women

  • 2004- Leadership, Economy & Health

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Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

THE WOMEN’S NEWS. INC.

[Top Ten Women's News in 2002]

[1] Presidential candidate TV debate organized by

women elevates the status of women groups

[2] The death of two schoolgirls sparks nationwide campaign for the revision of the SOFA

[3] Appointment of first women Prime Minister Chang Sang vetoed by legislators

[4] The first inter-Korean Women’s Reunification Rally since national division

[5] Korea’s birth rate of 1.3 the world’s lowest

[6] Birth of the Committee on Women’s Affairs as a National Assembly Standing Committee

[7] Anti-Prostitution Act proposed at the National Assembly

[8] Passionate response of women the biggest contributor to a successful World Cup

[9] ‘Cyber Mentoring’ campaign initiated by the Ministry of Gender Equality opens a new chapter in the women’s movement

[10] VAT-exemption on sanitary napkins becomes a public issue

GLOBAL SUMMIT OF WOMEN 2004


Joanne lee may 29 2004 global summit of women seoul korea

VI. BRAVE NEW WORLD

  • Strong Political Will and Leadership

  • Collaboration of

    Government

    Media

    NGO’s

    Private Sector

  • Gender equality and full utilization of women power are crucial pre-requisites for Korea’s reaching her goal of joining the world’s 10 largest economies.

  • THE MARCH HAS JUST BEGUN.

GLOBAL SUMMIT OF WOMEN 2004


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