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CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH. Asks what several events have in common Asks whether knowing one event can allow prediction of another event Does not imply causation. -When research shows that two traits are connected together -If one trait is there, the other is too. Correlation.

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Correlational research
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH

  • Asks what several events have in common

  • Asks whether knowing one event can allow prediction of another event

  • Does not imply causation


Correlation

-When research shows that two traits are connected together

-If one trait is there, the other is too

Correlation

Module 4: Research Strategies





Hair color does not CAUSE eye color

Blue

Green

Brown

Eye Color

Blonde

Brown

Red

Hair Color


Experiment
Experiment

  • A research method in which the researcher manipulates and controls certain variables to observe the effect on other variables.

  • Hypothesis- a testable prediction about the outcome of research


Activity

  • Design an experiment for each of these ideas.

    • Playing sports makes a person more/less aggressive

    • Women are more/less friendly than men

    • Teenagers have more/less emotional problems than adults

    • People become friends with others who are similar/different from themselves.

Activity:


Experimental Research – highest constraint

“True Experiment”

Control:

Systematic methods

Reduce threats to validity

Limit Extraneous variables (confounds)

 RANDOM ASSIGNMENT

  • Measurement procedures carefully designed

    and precisely followed




Independent through experimentsVariable (IV):

The variable that a researcher changes

Each group is given a different variable

…”I” do the research…it’s what “I” control


Independent variable
Independent Variable through experiments

Example 1:

Group 1 gets 100mg of a drug

Group 2 gets 25mg

Group 3 gets a fake pill

Here the IV is DRUG (different amounts)

IV

25 mg

100 mg

Sugar pill


Example 2: through experiments

Either give some subjects 20, 60 or 40 watts and test

their performance on a math test

20 watts

60 watts

100 watts

The IV = the amount of light


Dependent Variable through experiments:

-The variable that changes because the researcher changed the IV

-The variable that you measure


Dependent variable
Dependent Variable through experiments

Example 1:

Group 1 gets 100mg of a drug --- Sleeps for 9 hours

Group 2 gets 25mg – Sleeps for 4.5 hours

Group 3 gets a fake pill – Sleeps for 1 hour

Here the DV is sleep (different amounts)

IV

25 mg

100 mg

Sugar pill


Example 2: through experiments

Either give some subjects 20, 60 or 40 watts and test

their performance on a math test

20 watts

60 watts

100 watts

The DV = the different test scores


Dependent Variable through experiments:

Reaction time

cancer cells

errors on memory test


Types of Research through experiments

= (approach to gathering data)

LOW

  • Nonscientific

  • Naturalistic Observation

  • Case Study

  • Correlational Research

  • Quasi-experimental Research

  • Experimental Research

Level of Constraint

HI

HI Level of Constraint:

More control = more precision


Non Scientific: ex: Historians through experiments


CONSTRUCTS: Inferences we make through experiments

memory

Super ego

ego

id

personality

Reification of a construct: logical error

when we confuse a fact with a construct



Confounding Variables through experiments


The through experimentsonly thing that should change in an experiment is the independent variable. If something else changes during the experiment, it is a confounding variable


Confounding = confusing; causing problems through experiments

Confounding Variables

-Any variable that is different for

the two groups of subject

-It might change the results of the study


Examples of confounding variables
Examples of Confounding Variables: through experiments

  • Different environments

    • Room color

    • Temperature, seat comfort

    • Loudness

  • Sample is not random

  • Researcher treats the groups differently

    • Helps one group more

    • Is nicer to one group

  • Subjects know the experiment and hypothesis


examples of confounding variables through experiments

testing subjects on a memory test

…temperature in the room is HOT …impact on the tests results

Examining the effects of alcohol

on driving and obeying posted signs…but you don’t test their eyesight


Life expectancy
Life Expectancy through experiments


Figure 5-1. (p. 106) through experimentsGraphical representation of the data in Table 5-3 showing the characteristic pattern of(a) high positive correlation, (b) essentially zero correlation, (c) strong negative correlation.


True experimental research
TRUE EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH through experiments

  • Sample is assigned to groups

  • The surrounding is controlled by researcher


Experimental design
Experimental Design through experiments


Schizophrenia and semantics through experiments


Confounding variable

Confounding Variable


Experiments control for other confounding variables

Experiments: Control for Other Confounding Variables variable that could produce a change in the dependent variable

Module 4: Research Strategies


Confounding variables environmental differences

Confounding Variables: Environmental Differences


Confounding variables expectation effects

Confounding Variables:Expectation Effects


Blind procedure

Blind procedure


Double blind procedure

Double Blind Procedure


Placebo

Placebo


Population
Population a drug or active agent

  • The entire group of people about whom you would like to know something.

  • Random Sample- fairly represents a population because each member of the population has an equal chance of being included.


Data and the Nature of Measurement a drug or active agent


Research ethics

Research Ethics a drug or active agent

Module 4: Research Strategies


Ethics human research four basic principles

Ethics: a drug or active agentHuman Research(Four Basic Principles)

Module 4: Research Strategies


1 informed consent
1. Informed Consent a drug or active agent

  • Participants must be informed, in advance, about:

    • the general nature of the research, and

    • any potential risk.

    • Participants must have the right to refuse participation or withdraw at any time.


2 right to be protected from harm and discomfort
2. Right to be Protected from Harm and Discomfort a drug or active agent

  • Studies involving harm or discomfort may be conducted only under certain circumstances, and only with the informed consent of the participants.


3 right of confidentiality
3. Right of Confidentiality a drug or active agent

  • Individual data about research participants should never be discussed or released.


4 right to debriefing
4. Right to Debriefing a drug or active agent

  • Participants have a right to receive a complete explanation of the research at the end of the study.

  • This is extremely important if the research involves deception.


Ethics animal research

Ethics: a drug or active agentAnimal Research

Module 4: Research Strategies


Reasons for animal research

Reasons for Animal Research


Reasons for animal research1

Reasons for Animal Research


Care of animals used in research

Care of Animals used in Research


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