Chapter 11 object oriented databases
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Chapter 11 Object-Oriented Databases. Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management 4th Edition Peter Rob & Carlos Coronel. Object Schemas: The Graphical Representation of Objects. Figure 11.14 Shared Representation For All Objects Of the Class Person.

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Chapter 11 object oriented databases

Chapter 11Object-Oriented Databases

Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management

4th Edition

Peter Rob & Carlos Coronel


Object schemas the graphical representation of objects

Object Schemas: The Graphical Representation of Objects

Figure 11.14 Shared Representation For All Objects Of the Class Person


Chapter 11 object oriented databases

State Of A Person Object Instance

Figure 11.15


Chapter 11 object oriented databases

Defining Three Abstract Data Types

Figure 11.16


Chapter 11 object oriented databases

Object Representation For Instances Of The

Class Person With ADTs

Figure 11.17


Object schemas the graphical representation of objects1

Object Schemas: The Graphical Representation of Objects

  • The object space or object schema is the equivalent of a database schema or a relational schema at a given time.

Figure 11.18


Chapter 11 object oriented databases

Figure 11.19 Referential Sharing Of Objects


Object schemas the graphical representation of objects2

Object Schemas: The Graphical Representation of Objects

  • Class-Subclass Relationships

Figure 11.20 Class Hierarchy


Chapter 11 object oriented databases

Employee Object Representation

Figure 11.21


Object schemas the graphical representation of objects3

Object Schemas: The Graphical Representation of Objects

  • Interobject Relationships: Attribute-Class Link

    • A attribute-class or interobject relationship is created when an object’s attribute references another object of the same or different class.

    • Relationship Representation:

      • Representing 1:M Relationships

      • Representing M:N Relationships

      • Representing M:N Relationships with an Intersection Class


Chapter 11 object oriented databases

Class Hierarchy For The EDLP Retail Corporation

Figure 11.22


Object schemas the graphical representation of objects4

Object Schemas: The Graphical Representation of Objects

  • Representing 1:M Relationships

    • Related classes are enclosed in boxes to make relationships more noticeable.

    • The double line on the box’s right side indicates that the relationship is mandatory.

    • Connectivity is indicated by labeling each box.


Chapter 11 object oriented databases

Representing The 1:M Relationship

Figure 11.23


Chapter 11 object oriented databases

Representing The 1:1 And 1:M Relationships

Figure 11.24


Chapter 11 object oriented databases

Employee-Dependent Relationship

Figure 11.25


Object schemas the graphical representation of objects5

Object Schemas: The Graphical Representation of Objects

  • Representing M:N Relationships

Figure 11.26


Object schemas the graphical representation of objects6

Object Schemas: The Graphical Representation of Objects

  • Representing M:N Relationships with an Intersection Class

Figure 11.27 Representing the M:N Relationship With Associated Attributes


Chapter 11 object oriented databases

Representing The M:N Relationship With Intersection Class

Figure 11.28


Chapter 11 object oriented databases

Figure 11.29 Object Space Representation


Object schemas the graphical representation of objects7

Object Schemas: The Graphical Representation of Objects

  • Late and Early Binding: Use and Importance

    • With late binding the data type of an attribute is not known until execution time or run-time.

    • Late binding allows two different object instances of the same class to contain values of different data types for the same attribute.

    • Early binding allows the database to check the data type for each of the attribute’s values at compilation or definition time.


Chapter 11 object oriented databases

Inventory Table With Predetermined (Base) Data Types

Figure 11.30


Chapter 11 object oriented databases

Inventory Class With Early Binding

Figure 11.31


Chapter 11 object oriented databases

OODM Inventory Class With Late Binding

Figure 11.32


Object schemas the graphical representation of objects8

Object Schemas: The Graphical Representation of Objects

  • Support for Versioning

    • Versioning is an OODM feature that allows us to track the history of change in the state of an object.

    • It is a very powerful modeling feature, especially in a CAD environment.


Oodm and previous data models

OODM and Previous Data Models

  • Object, Entity, and Tuple

    • An OODM object has additional characteristics such as behavior, inheritance, and encapsulation.

    • Such characteristics make OO modeling much more natural than E-R and relational modeling.


Chapter 11 object oriented databases

An Invoice Representation

Figure 11.33


Oodm and previous data models1

OODM and Previous Data Models

  • Class, Entity Set, and Table

    • Class is a more powerful concept that allows not only the description of the data structure but also the description of the behavior.

    • A class allows both the concept and the implementation of abstract data types.

  • Encapsulation and Inheritance

    • An object belonging to a class inherits all the properties of its superclasses.

    • Encapsulation hides the data representation and the method’s implementation from other objects and the user.


Oodm and previous data models2

OODM and Previous Data Models

  • Object ID

    • Object ID is not supported in either the E-R model or the relational model.

    • The hierarchical and the CODASYL models support some form of ID.

  • Relationships

    • Relationships in an OODM can be of two types: interclass references or class hierarchy inheritance.

    • E-R and relational models use a value-based relationship approach.


Oodm and previous data models3

OODM and Previous Data Models

  • Access

    • E-R and relational models use an ad hoc, set-oriented query language.

    • OODM is suited to support both navigational and set-oriented access.


Object oriented dbms

Object-Oriented DBMS

Figure 11.34


Chapter 11 object oriented databases

Table 11.4 The Thirteen OODBMS Rules


How oo affects database design

How OO Affects Database Design

  • OO database design approach provides both the data identification and the procedures or data manipulation to be performed.

  • OO database design forces us to think of data and procedures as a self-contained entity.

  • OO design is iterative and incremental in nature.

  • DBA’s role is likely to change with more programming responsibilities.

  • Lack of standards affects OO database design.


Oodbms advantages and disadvantages

OODBMS: Advantages and Disadvantages

  • Advantages

    • More semantic information.

    • Support for complex objects.

    • Extensibility of data types.

    • Improved performance with efficient caching.

    • Versioning.

    • Faster development and easy maintenance through inheritance and reusability.

    • Technology-driven product for next generation DBMS.

    • Potential to integrate DBMSs into a single environment.


Oodbms advantages and disadvantages1

OODBMS: Advantages and Disadvantages

  • Disadvantages

    • Strong opposition from the established players.

    • Lack of theoretical foundation.

    • Retrogressive to the old pointer systems.

    • Lack of standard ad hoc query language.

    • Lack of business data design and management tools.

    • Steep learning curve.

    • Lack of resources.


How oo concepts have influenced the relational model

How OO Concepts Have Influenced the Relational Model

  • New Features for Extended Relational (Object/Relational) Model

    • Extensibility of new user-defined (abstract) data types

    • Complex objects

    • Inheritance

    • Procedure calls (rules or triggers)

    • System-generated identifiers (OID surrogates)


How oo concepts have influenced the relational model1

How OO Concepts Have Influenced the Relational Model

  • Philosophy that guides the relational model’s enhancements:

    • Semantic and object-oriented concepts are necessary to support the new generation of applications.

    • These concepts can and must be added to the relational model.

    • The benefits of the relational model must be preserved to protect the investment in relational technology and to provide downward compatibility.


The next generation of dbms

The Next Generation of DBMS

  • The next generation of DBMS is likely to incorporate features borrowed from:

    • Object-oriented database systems

    • Artificial intelligence systems

    • Expert systems

    • Distributed database

    • The Internet


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