On Being Human
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On Being Human. ITEC 4130 Fall 2009. Understanding humans. Humans evolve much more slowly than technology There are limits to human capabilities - knowing what they are helps us understand what is going on. Three Views of Humans How to model a human!. Humans are interpreters/predictors

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On Being Human

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On being human

On Being Human

ITEC 4130

Fall 2009


Understanding humans

Understanding humans

  • Humans evolve much more slowly than technology

  • There are limits to human capabilities

  • - knowing what they are helps us understand what is going on


Three views of humans how to model a human

Three Views of Humans How to model a human!

  • Humans are interpreters/predictors

  • - cog. psych. & AI

  • Humans are sensory processors

  • - sensory psych., EE & CS systems

  • Humans are actors in environment

  • -activity Th., ethnog., ecol. psych.


Humans as i o machines

Humans as I/O machines

  • Senses

  • vision

  • hearing

  • touch

  • smell/taste

  • proprioception (positional feedback)

  • requires time to propogate back to brain

  • kinesthesia (muscle memory)

  • instantaneous

  • golf swing or catching a ball


Vision

Vision

  • Two stages in vision

  • - physical reception of the stimulus

  • - processing and interpretation of stimulus

  • - red arrow green arrow problem

  • The physical apparatus: the eye

  • - mechanism for receiving light and transforming it into electrical energy


More about the eye

More about the eye

  • The eye:

  • - the light it picks up is light that reflects from objects

  • - images are focused upside-down on retina

  • - retina contains rods for low light vision and cones for color vision

  • - ganglia distribution on the retina varies by species (African plains vs tree dwellers)


Depth and size perception it is a complex suite of clues

Depth and Size PerceptionIt is a complex suite of clues

  • visual angle indicates how much of field of view object occupies

    • Is your visual field circular?

    • Test this using a marker on the board

  • visual acuity is ability to perceive fine detail

    • predatory birds have very high visual acuity

      • Eagles: 600,000 cones/sq mm

      • Humans: 150,000 cones/ sq mm


Depth and size perception it is a complex suite of clues1

Depth and Size PerceptionIt is a complex suite of clues

  • familiar objects perceived as constant size

    • law of size constancy

    • as someone walks toward you you don’t think: Man, that guy is getting taller by the second!

  • Cues help perception of size and depth

    • Accommodation (lens stretches)

    • Occlusion

    • Motion parallax

    • Relative size (tied to size constancy)

    • Aerial perspective (atmospheric)


Brightness

Brightness

  • Brightness is a subjective reaction to levels of light

  • Measured by just noticeable difference

  • Visual acuity increases with luminance

    • Pinhole camera

    • Reading is improved in bright light


Color perception

Color Perception

  • Color made up of hue, intensity, saturation

  • Cones sensitive to color wavelengths

  • Blue acuity is lowest

  • Green acuity is highest

  • 8% males and 1% females color blind (Red/Green confusion most freq)


Xxxxx graphical representation at the interface

XXXXXGraphical Representation at the Interface

  • Graphical modeling and 3-D

  • Graphical coding

    • Graphical coding for quantitative data

    • Color coding

    • Color versus monochrome coding

  • Icons


Compensation illusions

Compensation & Illusions

http://blindspottest.com

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Gradient-optical-illusion.svg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Same_color_illusion

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grid_illusion

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ponzo_illusion

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Revolving_circles.svg


Reading it s pretty complicated

Reading… it’s pretty complicated

  • “Stage” model of reading

  • (1) visual pattern perceived

  • (2) decoded using internal language representation (pick out the words)

  • (3) interpreted using knowledge of syntax, semantics, pragmatics

  • (what do these words mean?)


Perception in reading

Perception in reading

  • Reading involves saccades and fixations

    • Saccades are rapid movements of the eye

    • Without them, the retina would “saturate” and you wouldn’t see anything

    • Fixations are the stops in that movement

  • Perception occurs only during fixations

    • Otherwise the world would be blurred!

    • AKA: saccade masking

  • Word shape is important to recognition.


Hearing

Hearing

  • Two stages in hearing

  • - physical reception of the stimulus

  • - processing and interpretation of stimulus

  • -someone speaks to you

  • -you say “what?”

  • -but you figure out what they said before they can answer


Hearing1

Hearing

  • Provides information about environment:

    • Distance

    • Direction (but you can’t distinguish between directly in front and directly behind you!)

  • People can hear from 20Hz to 15kHz(I wish!)

    • less accurate distinguishing between high frequencies

  • Auditory system filters sounds

    • We can attend to sounds even in the presence of background noise

      • “cocktail party phenomenon”


Touch

Touch

  • Receptors in the skin:

  • - thermoreceptors (heat and cold)

  • but you can’t distinguish which!

  • - nociceptors (pain)

  • - mechanoreceptors (pressure)

  • Unevenly distributed across the body

  • Some areas more sensitive than others

    • fingers are more sensitive than your back


6th 7th and 8th senses

6th, 7th and 8th senses

  • Proprioception

  • internal awareness of your body position

  • (Through feedback)

  • Kinesthesis

  • awareness of body movement

  • (Through muscle memory)

  • Balance

  • vestibular organ of inner ear

  • visual cues as to orientation

  • awareness of body orientation

  • through proprioception


Movement perception

Movement & perception

  • Tight integration of

  • -perception & motor planning,

  • -movement execution

  • -feedback

  • proprioceptive, kinesthetic, vestibular and visual

  • Response time = reaction time + movement time

  • -Movement time depends on age, fitness …

  • -Reaction time depends on modality

  • visual: 200ms

  • auditory: 150 ms

  • pain: 700ms (slow and distance related)


The box model of memory

The Box Model of Memory

Sensory memories

vision

touch

auditory

Short-term/

working

memory

Long-term

Memory

Episodic

Semantic

Sensory buffers

are

constantlyoverwritten

Driven by attention

Semantic: facts, meanings, skills, concepts, understandings…

Episodic: events, time, place, emotion…

Scratch-pad for temporary recall

* rapid access (70ms)

* rapid decay (200ms)

* limited capacity (7 ± 2)

Recency effect:

recall of recent items best

Evidence for several working memories


The box model of memory1

The Box Model of Memory

Long-term

Memory

Episodic

Semantic

Semantic memory structure

-provides access to information

-represents relationships between information

-supports inference

-associative:

-recall based on meaning

-gives rise to meaning-related confusions

-eye witness testimony…


Attention

Attention

  • Focused

  • Sustained

  • Divided

  • Selective

  • Alternating


Attention1

Attention

  • How to focus attention at an interface?

    • Structure the information

    • Others…


Consolidation

Consolidation

  • Moving information from STM to LTM?

  • Need to provide:

    • Structure

    • Meaning

    • Become familiar (through rehearsal)


Forgetting

Forgetting

  • Decay

  • Information lost gradually but slowly

  • Interference

  • New information replaces old (retroactive)

  • Old may interfere with new (proactive)

  • Inhibition

  • You can ‘choose’ to forget

  • Example:

  • Parking your car…

  • You intentionally forget all but the most recent episode


Retrieval

Retrieval

  • Recall

  • * Information reproduced from memory

  • * Can be assisted by cues, (e.g. categories, imagery, auditory input…)

  • Recognition

  • * Information gives knowledge that it has been seen before


Knowledge representation

Knowledge representation

  • Declarative knowledge = knowing that

  • Semantic networks

  • Frames

  • Scripts

  • Procedural knowledge = knowing how

  • Scripts

  • Production rules


Semantic networks

Semantic networks


Frame based model of semantic memory

Frame-based model of semantic memory

  • Knowledge is organized in data structure

  • Slots in structure are instantiated with particular values for a given instance of data

  • ...translation for CS people:

  • frames classes in the head;

  • slots  variables/methods in the head)


General knowledge as frames

General knowledge as frames


Script based memory

Script-based memory

  • Scripts = using frames for stereotypical processes (e.g. eating in a restaurant)

  • * used for interpreting situations

  • * generalize episodic-memory events


Production rules

Production rules

  • Representation of procedural knowledge

  • Condition/action rules

  • if condition is matched, rule fires


Slips and mistakes

Slips and Mistakes

  • Slips are errors in execution of correct intention

  • Capture errors

  • Errors of attention

  • Mistakes are errors in selection of goal or method for accomplishing it

  • Errors of knowledge


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