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Manufactured and Modular Homes. Special Emphasis Program. Objectives. Understand the procedures for safe installation of manufactured and modular homes. Job safety analysis for construction crews, training and skills required.

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Manufactured and Modular Homes

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Manufactured and Modular Homes

Special Emphasis Program


Objectives

  • Understand the procedures for safe installation of manufactured and modular homes.

  • Job safety analysis for construction crews, training and skills required.

  • The importance of correct installation procedures to prevent accidents/mishaps.


Definitions

  • Footing: That portion of the support system that transmits loads directly to the soil.

  • Marriage wall: The wall where two single-section units are structurally joined to form a multi-section unit. The marriage wall may contain openings that permit interior spaces to expand to two units wide.


Manufactured and Modular Homes

  • What is the difference between manufactured and modular homes?

    • Manufactured homes are constructed according to a code administered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD Code).

    • The HUD Code, unlike conventional building codes, requires manufactured homes to be constructed on a permanent chassis. Modular homes, on the other hand, are constructed to the same building codes as site-built homes.

    • Other types of systems-built homes include panelized wall systems, log homes, structural insulated panels, and insulating concrete forms.


Injuries and Deaths

  • Prior to the year 2000, modular and mobile home manufacturing industries experienced 13 deaths from injuries and residential building contractors.

  • In the most recent published report covering modular and mobile homes - manufacturing and installation, combined - the two were among the top 10 high-risk industries, as measured by U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) annual surveys of occupational injuries and illnesses.


Medical Services & First Aid

1926.50(a)-(c)

  • Medical services and first aid requirements

    • The employer shall insure the availability of medical personnel for advice and consultation on matters of occupational health.

    • Provisions shall be made prior to commencement of the project for prompt medical attention in case of serious injury.

    • In the absence of an infirmary, clinic, hospital, or physician, that is reasonably accessible in terms of time and distance to the worksite, which is available for the treatment of injured employees, a person who has a valid certificate in first-aid training.


Inspection Process

  • Inspection priorities

    • Imminent danger

    • Fatality/catastrophe

    • Referral/complaints

    • Follow-up

    • Programmed


Prepare the Site

  • A properly prepared site is critical to a good quality installation and the long term structural stability of the home.

  • Site preparation includes the process of planning the site, evaluating the soil, and preparing the site for construction of the home’s support system.


Manufactured Home Hazards

  • There are potential hazards associated with the installation of a manufactured home.

    • Home installers must be licensed professionals capable of recognizing hazards.

    • They must provide safe work practices and equipment that minimize risks of injury and illnesses.


Job Hazard Analysis

  • A job hazard analysis is a technique that focuses on job tasks as a way to identify hazards before they occur.

  • It focuses on the relationship

    between the worker, the task, the

    tools, and the work environment.

    • Ideally, after you identify uncontrolled

      hazards, you will take steps to eliminate

      or reduce them.


Job Hazard Analysis

  • What are potential hazards associated with the installation of manufactured homes?

    • Using a chain saw

    • Hammering

    • Using an air-nailer

    • Using a circular saw

    • Carrying bundles of shingles

    • Using cordless drills

    • Overhead hazards

    • Misuse of tools

    • Walking and working at heights above 6 feet

    • Safe access on roofs

    • Setting and climbing extension ladders/step ladders


Job Hazard Analysis

  • Additional precautions and uncontrolled hazards at the jobsite:

    • Lack of personal protective equipment when using a chainsaw.

    • Improper use of step and extension ladders, including use of damaged ladders.

    • Walking/working under loads which are not properly secured on roofs.

    • No safety glasses when using a hammer,

      sledgehammer, air nailer, and circular saw.


Job Hazard Analysis

  • Lack of hard hats when exposed to falling-object hazards.

  • High noise exposures.

  • Fall hazards while working on foundation walls, around an open excavation and while working on low-sloped and steep-sloped roofs.


Basic Safety Rules

  • In many instances, basic safety rules and procedures are not followed:

    • Partly due to the lack of formal safety training for employees.

    • Unlike a typical stick-built house that is constructed in phases, a modular home is 80 to 95% complete when it leaves the factory.

    • Mobile homes are 95% complete when it leaves the factory for delivery to a work site.


Job Tasks

  • Major job tasks and potential hazards:

    • Flagging traffic while positioning the home for hoisting (struck by).

    • Hoisting of large, heavy modules, or “boxes” by an inexperienced workforce on a site having uneven terrain and other less-than-desirable conditions (struck by, caught between).

    • Working under a heavy load that is being hoisted into place, which happens less often with residential work (struck by, caught between).


Job Tasks

  • Aligning the house to the foundation (caught between).

  • Accessing the foundation wall with a ladder that does not exceed the top edge of the wall (fall).

  • Accessing the roof with an extension ladder (fall).

  • Riding the tilt-up roof into place… “riding the load” (fall).

  • Working under the roof while it is suspended by the crane (caught between, crushed by, fall).


Safe Jack Procedures

  • No one should be under the home’s I-beam while jacks are being operated or when the home is supported only on the jacks.

  • Only use jacks for raising the home.

    • Make sure adequate safety cribbing is in place whenever the home is placed on jacks.


Safe Jack Procedures

  • Ensure the concentrated loads from jack to I-beam is distributed evenly.

  • Locate the jack base on firm ground.

    • Never jack on freshly disturbed soil or where an underground sewer pipe may be located.

    • Never use concrete blocks as a support for a jack.

  • Never use jacks that are leaking or are in

    need of repairs.


Marriage of Walls

  • Using a mechanical positioning system such as a roller system will make the process easier, safer and less likely to damage the home or injure employees.

    • Ensure all employees are removed from areas around the roller system.

    • Remember to place safety timbers under home behind axle area and under hitch.


Roof and Exterior Walls

  • Multi-section homes require employees to work from heights between 6 to 20 feet.

    • Employees are required to use fall protection or guardrails system.


Crossover Connections

  • Use only qualified personnel to make crossover connections.

    • Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)

    • Electrical

      • Ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI)

      • National Electrical Codes (NEC)

      • Electrical bonding of multi-section homes

    • Gas

      • Do not connect to gas service until tests described in connect utilities have been successfully completed.

    • Water and waste plumbing


Stabilizing Systems

  • Uses the earth (or ground) anchors and steel straps connected to the home's longitudinal steel beams and/or exterior walls to prevent laterally movement.

  • Where site or other conditions prohibit the use of the manufacturer’s instructions, a registered engineer or registered architect must design the stabilizing system.


Electrical Service

  • Power supplies

    • Generators: A large enough power supply must be available at the site.

      • An inadequate power supply may result in improper operation and possible damage to motor, appliances or injuries to employees working in other locations.

    • Do not provide electrical power until the grounding electrode is installed and connected.

      • Do not ground the neutral bar in the electrical distribution panel.


Ladder Safety

1926.1053

  • A stairway or ladder required at access points with a difference in elevation of 19” or more.

    • Where no ramp, runway, sloped embankment, or personnel hoist is provided.


Ladder Components

1926.1053


Ladder Support

1926.1053(a)(1)

  • Self supporting and non-self supporting ladders shall be capable of supporting at least four (4) times the maximum intended load.

    • Except type 1A metal or plastic ladders shall sustain at least 3.3 times maximum intended load.


1926.1053(a)(7) and (9)

Ladder Safety

  • Ladders must not be tied or fastened together to extend unless by design.


Ladder Safety

1926.1053(a)(8)

  • A metal spreader or locking device shall be provided on each stepladder to hold the front and back sections in an open position when the ladder is being use.


Fall Protection Requirements

Steel Erection

15’

Scaffolds

10’

Construction Sites

6’

General Industry

4’


Fall Protection

1926.501(a)

  • Employer required to provide fall protection systems.

  • Employer shall determine if the walking/working surfaces on which its employees are to work have the strength and structural integrity to support employees safely.


Fall Protection Required

1926.501(b)(1)-(15)

  • Unprotected sides, edges

  • Excavations

  • Overhand bricklaying

  • Low-slope roofs

  • Steep roofs

  • Residential construction

  • Wall openings

  • Other walking and working surfaces


Fall Protection Required

1926.501(b)(10) - (11)

  • Low-slope roof

    • < 4/12 pitch

  • Steep roof

    • > 4/12 pitch


Personal Fall Arrest System

1926.502(d)

AnchorageConnectors


Personal Fall Arrest System

1926.502(d)

  • D-Rings, snaphooks, lanyards, lifelines, anchorages rated @ 5,000 pounds

  • No free fall more than 6 feet; nor contact any lower level; 3.5 feet max deceleration

  • Provide for prompt rescue

  • Inspect prior to each use


Training Requirements

1926.503

  • The employer shall:

    • Provide training program

    • Assure each employee has been trained

    • Provide written certification

    • Retrain where necessary


Common Electrical Hazards

  • Electric shock/electrocution occur when current flows through the body, thereby damaging the body.

  • Indirect falls from ladders, scaffolds or other walking and working surfaces.


Common Electrical Hazards

  • Explosions can be caused when electricity provides a source of ignition for an explosive mixture in the atmosphere.

  • Fires are caused by overloading a circuit or appliance or by current flowing through high resistance due to faulty wiring, setting fire to insulation and surrounding materials.


General Requirements

1926.403(a)

  • All electrical conductors and equipment shall be approved.


General Requirements

1926.403(b)(1)

  • Electrical equipment must be free from recognized hazards that can cause death or serious physical harm to employees.

    • Suitability for installation

    • Mechanical strength and

      durability

    • Electrical insulation

    • Heating effects under

      condition of use

    • Arcing effects

    • Classification by type, size, voltage,

      current capacity, specific use


General Requirements

1926.403(b)(2)

  • Listed, labeled, or certified equipment must be installed and used in accordance with instructions included in the listing, labeling or certification.


General Requirements

1926.403(h)

  • Each service, feeder, and branch circuit, at its disconnecting means or over current device, shall be legibly marked to indicate its purpose.


General Requirements

  • Used in accordance with instructions.


Testing Laboratories


Struck-By

  • Struck-by accidents are those where an object hits the worker.

    • These accidents are frequently related to material handling and housekeeping.

    • Poorly stacked material may fall or slide.

    • Objects blocking aisles could cause bumps or tripping.

    • Overhead storage shelves, racks, hangers, aisles, passageways, and doors can be a source of danger.

    • Careless work habits can make hazards worse.


Struck-By

  • Struck-by accidents can also occur during tree trimming, pruning, and felling.

    • The tree or tree limbs can fall and strike workers on the ground or in the tree.

    • Bent limbs can also strike workers when the limb is released and springs back.


Struck-By

  • Eliminate hazards

    • Don’t leave tools or loose parts on window ledges, shelves, cranes, or working platforms. If you see any left loose, report them or remove them.

    • Leave guards or screens in place on equipment as it was manufactured.

      • Examples: concrete mixers, air compressors, air nailers.

    • Be alert for low beams, floor joists and pipes with low clearances (Under the home you’re installing).


Struck-By

  • Stack and store objects properly in trailers or work vehicles.

  • If there is a potential danger from overhead hazards, wear an approved hard hat or bump hat.

  • Use falling object protective structures (FOPS) on equipment.

  • Be alert and report all hazards.

    • Warning: As a safety precaution, tires and axles should be left on the home as long as possible and/or proper safety cribbing used with this equipment.


Common Tools


Ergonomics: Back Injuries

  • Types

    • Ligament sprains

    • Muscle strains

    • Disc disorders

  • Risk factors

  • Risk reduction

  • Aging process

  • Frequent lifting

  • Heavy lifting


More Risk Factors

  • Working in confined or limited space

  • Moving materials (blocks, bricks or other materials)

  • Maintaining prolonged static postures

  • Slipping, tripping or falling

  • Maintaining poor posture


Summary

  • We covered the understanding and correct procedures for safe installation of manufactured and modular homes.

  • Job safety analyses for both manufactured and modular work crews, training and skills required.

  • The importance of correct installation procedures, equipment used to prevent accidents/mishaps.


Thank You For Attending!

Final Questions?

1-800-NC-LABOR

(1-800-625-2267)

www.nclabor.com


Handouts

Place all handouts at the end of this presentation.


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