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AQA Examinations A Level Sport and Physical Education A 6581 Module 4 part B Physiological, Biomechanical and Psychological Factors which Optimise Performance. 25 - MEASUREMENT OF STRESS QUESTIONNAIRES / BEHAVIOURAL / PHYSIOLOGICAL 26 - RELAXATION TECHNIQUES

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AQA Examinations A Level Sport and Physical Education A 6581 Module 4 part B

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Aqa examinations a level sport and physical education a 6581 module 4 part b

AQA ExaminationsA Level Sport and Physical EducationA 6581

Module 4 part B

Physiological, Biomechanical and Psychological Factors which Optimise Performance


Index

25 - MEASUREMENT OF STRESS

QUESTIONNAIRES / BEHAVIOURAL / PHYSIOLOGICAL

26 - RELAXATION TECHNIQUES

IMAGERY / PROGRESSIVE RELAXATION TRAINING (PRT)

CENTRING / SELF-DIRECTED RELAXATION TRAINING

27 - STRESS CONTROL TECHNIQUES

COGNITIVE STRESS MANAGEMENT

BIOFEEDBACK / SELF-TALK

28 - MENTAL PREPARATION FOR PERFORMANCE

MENTAL REHEARSAL / GOAL SETTING

29 - SELF-CONFIDENCE AND SELF-EFFICACY

30 - SELF-CONFIDENCE - CONFIDENCE

31 - SELF-CONFIDENCE

OVERCONFIDENCE / FALSE CONFIDENCE

32 - THE ROLE OF THE COACH

33 - SELF-EFFICACY - BANDURA’S MODEL

VICARIOUS EXPERIENCES

34 - SELF-EFFICACY - BANDURA’S MODEL

VERBAL PERSUASION

35 - SELF-CONFIDENCE - WEINBERG’S MODEL

36 - VEALEY’s MODEL OF SPORT CONFIDENCE

37 - LEARNED HELPLESSNESS (LH)

GLOBAL / SPECIFIC LH - ATTRIBUTION RETRAINING

38 - THE SELF-CONCEPT - SELF-ESTEEM

39 - ATTRIBUTION - WEINER’S MODEL

LOCUS OF CAUSALITY / STABILITY / CONTROLLABILITY

40 - DEVELOPING AND ENHANCING MOTIVATION

PERSONAL / SITUATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS

41 - ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION

NEED TO ACHIEVE (NACH) / AVOID FAILURE (NAF)

42 - ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION

PERSONALITY COMPONENTS

43 - ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION - SITUATIONAL FACTORS

Index

3 - AROUSAL - RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM

4 - AROUSAL AND DRIVE THEORY

5 - INVERTED U THEORY

THE POSITION OF OPTIMUM AROUSAL

6 - AROUSAL CURVES - EXAMPLES

7 - CATASTROPHE THEORY

8 - TASK DIFFERENCES - OPTIMUM AROUSAL

9 - TASK DIFFERENCES

COMPLEX / SKILFULLY DIFFICULT - SIMPLE / GROSS TASKS

10 - ATTENTION

SELECTIVE ATTENTION / ATTENTIONAL NARROWING

11 - PERCEPTION AND SELECTIVE ATTENTION

12 - CONCENTRATION - CUE UTILISATION

USE OF COGNITIVE TECHNIQUES TO ASSIST CONCENTRATION

13 - CONCENTRATION AND ATTENTIONAL STYLES

NIDEFFER - BROAD / NARROW / INTERNAL / EXTERNAL

14 - ANXIETY

TRAIT / STATE ANXIETY - A TRAIT / STATE

15 - THE EFFECT OF AUDIENCE

AROUSAL CAUSED BY AUDIENCE EVALUATION

DEVELOPMENT OF A CORRECT DOMINANT RESPONSE

16 - THE DISTRACTION EFFECT

17 - STRESS AND STRESSORS

18 - STRESSORS

19 - GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME

20 - PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS - EXTERNAL - THE SITUATION

INTERNAL / COMPETITIVE ORIENTATION

21 - EUSTRESS

22 - EFFECT OF STRESS ON PERFORMANCE

INHIBITION / PERFORMANCE OF SKILLS / CONCENTRATION

23 - SYMPTOMS OF STRESS

PHYSIOLOGICAL / PSYCHOLOGICAL / BEHAVIOURAL

24 - THE MANAGEMENT OF STRESS

INDEX


Arousal

RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM

RAS is a system within the brain which causes arousal

extroverts have lower levels of intrinsic arousal than introverts

hence extroverts seek situations of high arousal

introverts seek low arousal situations

Arousal

AROUSAL

a state of mental and physical preparedness for action

this is the level of inner drives

which forces the sportsperson to strive to achieve

it needs to be under control

and at the right level depending on the task

a faster heart rate

faster breathing rate

sweating

ability to focus (concentrate)

response to danger

AROUSAL


Arousal and drive theory

WITH INCREASED AROUSAL

the dominant habit / most usual behaviour will be reproduced

a poorly-learned skill will give a performance full of mistakes

a well-learned skill will give a skilled performance

Arousal

AROUSAL AND DRIVE THEORY

DRIVE THEORY

  • the higher the arousal level

  • the higher the achievement / performance level

  • the more likely that a well-learned skill (a dominant response) will be produced


Inverted u theory

INVERTED U THEORY

THE POSITION OF OPTIMUM AROUSAL DEPENDS ON

type of activity / task complexity

gross skills (weight lifting) require high arousal

fine skills (snooker) require low arousal

skill level of the performer

the more skilful the performer

the higher the optimum arousal could be

personality of the performer

the more extrovert the performer

the higher the arousal likely for optimum performance

Arousal

INVERTED U THEORY

  • there is an optimum arousal level

  • if aroused more than this

  • performance will decline


Arousal curves

BEST PERFORMANCE

Sam’s performance has the highest level

Arousal

AROUSAL CURVES

PSYCHING UP

  • Jon’s best performance takes place at the highest arousal level

  • he needs to psych himself up the most to achieve optimum performance

CONTROLLED AROUSAL

  • Ted’s best performance takes place between a narrow range of arousal levels

  • therefore arousal needs to be carefully controlled


Catastrophe theory

CATASTROPHE THEORY

here performance increases as arousal increases

but if arousal gets too high

a complete loss of performance occurs

Arousal

CATASTROPHE THEORY

  • example : the golfer who tries too hard and completely misses the fairway from his drive at the 18th hole when in a winning position

  • example : the gymnast who completely messes up her previously well-executed routine in a national final

  • anxiety affects arousal


Task differences

OPTIMUM AROUSAL

can be identified

can be controlled by successful performers

depends on

circumstances

personalities

whether tasks are

simple or complex

fine or gross

strength or endurance

information processing

whether the performer directs attention

concentrates

narrows attention to the specific task

Arousal - Tasks

TASK DIFFERENCES


Task differences1

COMPLEX / SKILFULLY DIFFICULT TASKS

fine, delicate and highly controlled

or information processing tasks

high arousal interferes with task

sometimes very low arousal is required (calmness)

close control required

narrow band of arousal best

Arousal - Tasks

TASK DIFFERENCES

SIMPLE / GROSS TASKS

  • easy / large basic movements / strength or endurance tasks

  • bigger margin for error

  • broader optimal arousal zone

  • tolerate bigger arousal levels before performance falls


Attention

Attention

ATTENTION

ATTENTION AND SELECTIVE ATTENTION

  • relates to the amount of information we can cope with

  • since the amount of information we can attend to is limited

  • we have limited attentional capacity

  • the performer must therefore attend to only relevant information

  • and disregard irrelevant information

  • this is called selective attention

    ATTENTIONAL NARROWING AND CONCENTRATION

  • when some parts of a performance become automatic

  • the information relevant to those parts does not require attention

  • this gives the performer spare attentional capacity

  • which allows the performer to attend to new elements of a skill

  • such as tactics or anticipating the moves of an opponent

  • the coach will need to help the performer to make best use of spare attentional capacity

  • the coach will also need to direct the attention of the performer to enable him / her to concentrate and reduce the chance of attentional switching to irrelevant information or distractions


Perception and selective attention

Selective Attention

PERCEPTION AND SELECTIVE ATTENTION

PERCEPTION

  • perception is stimulus identification

  • as information is received from the environment, the performer needs to make sense of it

  • to interpret it and identify the elements which are relevant and important

  • consists of three elements :

    • detection

    • comparison

    • recognition

      SELECTIVE ATTENTION

  • the process of sorting out relevant bits of information from the many which are received

  • attention passes the information to the short-term memory which gives time for conscious analysis

  • a good performer can focus totally on an important aspect of his / her skill

  • which can exclude other elements which may also be desirable

  • sometimes a performer may desire to concentrate on several different things at once


Concentration

CONCENTRATION

a state of mind in which attention is directed towards a specific aim or activity

attentional focus

control of attention towards a task

CUE UTILISATION

cues can be used by the sportaperson

to direct attention

to trigger appropriate arousal responses

to enable attentional focus at a relevant moment

sometimes, narrowingof attentional focus by an aroused player

will cause lack of awareness of broader play issues

USE OF COGNITIVE TECHNIQUES TO ASSIST CONCENTRATION

imagery

mental rehearsal

relaxation

can be used to direct the sportsperson’s mind towards a specific task

these techniques can be thought to manage the stress of the situation

to manage anxiety in a productive way

Concentration

CONCENTRATION


Concentration and attentional styles

NIDEFFER’S ATTENTIONAL STYLES

BROAD

a player concentrates on the whole game

all players’ positions and movements

open skills

NARROW

the player concentrates on one aspect of the game

the goalkeeper

closed skills

INTERNAL

the player decides to concentrate on his own technique

EXTERNAL

the player focuses on the position of his opposite number

Concentration

CONCENTRATION AND ATTENTIONAL STYLES


Anxiety

ANXIETY

an emotional state

similar to fear

associated with

physiological (somatic) arousal

psychological (cognitive) arousal

feelings of nervousness

feelings of apprehension

Anxiety

STATE ANXIETY - A STATE

an emotional response to a particular situation

characterised by feelings of nervousness and apprehension

often temporary

ANXIETY

TRAIT ANXIETY - A TRAIT

  • an inbuilt (trait) part of the personality

  • a tendency to be fearful of unfamiliar situations

  • a tendency to perceive competitive situations as threatening

  • a tendency to respond to competitive situations with apprehension and tension


The effect of audience

AROUSAL CAUSED BY AUDIENCE EVALUATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF A CORRECT DOMINANT RESPONSE

audience evaluation causes arousal

if a skill is poorly learnt (early in the learning curve)

then arousal causes incorrect response

because incorrect response is dominant

Arousal and Audience

THE EFFECT OF AUDIENCE

  • if a skill is well-learnt (later in the learning curve)

  • then arousal causes correct response

  • because the correct response is dominant

  • look at inverted U theory for connection between arousal and performance


The distraction effect

DISTRACTION

is an aspect of concentration (or lack of concentration)

attentional focus is very important for the effective sportsperson

if this is disrupted then he / she is distracted from his / her task

audience and evaluation apprehension can act as a distraction

the sportsperson needs therefore to practise in distracting circumstances

and practise switching attentional focus when faced with potentially distracting circumstances

Attention

THE DISTRACTION EFFECT


Stress and stressors

STRESS

a response of the body to any demands made on it

symptoms of stress

physiological

psychological

behavioural

Emotional Control

STRESS AND STRESSORS


Stressors

STRESSORS

social

disapproval of parents / peers

rejection by peers / parents

isolation from normal social interactions

chemical / biochemical

harm by ingestion of substances

bacterial

illness caused by micro-organisms

physical

injury / pain / exhaustion

climatic

extremes of weather

hot weather for endurance activities

rain and cold on bare skin

psychological

mismatch between perception of demands of task

and ability to cope

Emotional Control

STRESSORS


General adaptation syndrome

homeostasis = the process of establishing body equilibrium in its functions

well-being

Emotional Control

GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME


Psychological stress

EXTERNAL - THE SITUATION

perception of the demands of the situation

example : I’ve got to run a PB to win

INTERNAL

perception of the performer’s ability to cope

example : I got a terribly slow start last time

COMPETITIVE ORIENTATION

perception of the importance of the situation

example : there’s a gold medal hanging on this

Emotional Control

PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS


Eustress

EUSTRESS

a type of stress with a positive effect

the performer actively seeks the thrill of the danger

and enjoys the excitement and feeling of satisfaction when it is over

examples :

bungy jumping

free rock climbing

extreme sport skiing

ultra high diving

‘I like an unforgiving situation where if you make a mistake you suffer for it’

Emotional Control

EUSTRESS


Effect of stress on performance

INHIBITION

inhibition of performance

PERFORMANCE OF SKILLS

stress may act directly on the information processing of skill

motor elements of skill are performed less well

muscles tense

muscular control is reduced

CONCENTRATION

concentration is difficult

span of attention is narrowed

STRESS

awareness of being under stress itself acts as a stressor

Emotional Control

EFFECT OF STRESS ON PERFORMANCE


Symptoms of stress

PHYSIOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS

increased heart rate

increased blood pressure

increased sweating

increased breathing rate

decreased flow of blood to the skin

increased oxygen uptake

dry mouth

PSYCHLOGICAL SYMPTOMS

worry

feeling overwhelmed

inability to make decisions

inability to concentrate

inability to direct attention appropriately

narrowing of attention

feeling out of control

BEHAVIOURAL SYMPTOMS

rapid talking

nail biting

pacing

scowling

yawning

trembling

raised voice pitch

frequent urination

Emotional Control

SYMPTOMS OF STRESS


The management of stress

Emotional Control

THE MANAGEMENT OF STRESS


Measurement of stress

QUESTIONNAIRES

Marten’s Sport Competitive Anxiety Test (SCAT)

measures emotional and physiological responses to stress in the competitive situation

Speilberger’s State, Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)

measures emotional and physiological responses to stress in general and specific situations

BEHAVIOURAL MEASURES

the performance of sports players is observed

a subjective method

PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES

require laboratory testing equipment, objective methods

examples :

galvanic skin response

electrocardiogram

electroencephalogram

Stress and Anxiety

MEASUREMENT OF STRESS


Relaxation techniques

IMAGERY RELAXATION

think of a place with associations of warmth and relaxation

imagine the activity or technique

practise in non-stressful situations

use prior to competition

PROGRESSIVE RELAXATION TRAINING (PRT)

learn to tense then deeply relax separate muscle groups

CENTRING

control of physiological symptoms of stress by focusing on control of the diaphragm and deep breathing

SELF-DIRECTED RELAXATION TRAINING

focus on each of the major muscle groups in turn

allow breathing to become slow and easy

visualise the tension flowing out of a muscle group

until completely relaxed

eventually combine muscle groups

and achieve total relaxation quickly

Control of Stress

RELAXATION TECHNIQUES


Stress control techniques

BIOFEEDBACK

monitor skin temperature

cold if stressed

warm if unstressed

galvanic skin response

electrical conductivity of skin increases when moist

tense muscle cause sweating

electromygraphy

electrodes taped to specific muscles

can detect electrical activity

hence tension in muscle

SELF-TALK

talking through the process of a competitive situation

talking positively, building self-confidence

Control of Stress

COGNITIVE STRESS MANAGEMENT

control of emotions and thought processes

linked to attributions

eliminate negative feelings

develop self-confidence

STRESS CONTROL TECHNIQUES


Mental preparation for performance

MENTAL REHEARSAL

consciously imagine a performance

rerun a past experience

preview hope-for success

helps concentration

helps focus on strengths and weaknesses

positive effect on skill learning

but not as good as actual practice

GOAL SETTING

success is more likely because :

learning is focused

uncertainty is reduced

confidence is increased

practice is planned and structured

evaluation and feedback are specific

Emotional Control

MENTAL PREPARATION FOR PERFORMANCE


Self confidence and self efficacy

SELF-CONFIDENCE

SELF-EFFICACY

Self-Confidence and Self-Efficicacy

SELF-CONFIDENCE AND SELF-EFFICACY


Self confidence

CONFIDENCE

Self-Confidence and Self-Efficicacy

SELF-CONFIDENCE

  • arouses positive emotions

  • allows the athlete to

    • remain calm under pressure

    • be assertive when required

  • facilitates concentration

  • enables focus on the important aspects of a task

  • enables the setting of challenging but realistic goals

  • increases effort

  • affects game strategies

    • a confident player plays to win even if it means taking risks

  • affects psychological momentum

    • a confident athlete take each point or play at a time

    • and never gives up

    • even when defeat is imminent


Self confidence1

OVERCONFIDENCE OR FALSE CONFIDENCE

is dangerous because it can lead to

inadequate preparation

low motivation

low arousal

which are difficult to correct when competition is under way

Self-Confidence and Self-Efficicacy

SELF-CONFIDENCE

LACK OF CONFIDENCE

  • causes stress under pressure

  • causes concentration on outside stressors

    • mistakes

    • spectators

  • causes the setting of goals which are either too easy or too hard

  • causes the athlete to try to avoid mistakes

  • non-confident athletes find it difficult to reverse negative psychological momentum

    • once things start to go wrong

    • it is difficult to think positively


The role of the coach

ROLE OF THE COACH

develop self-confidence

and self-efficacy

through successful achievement

ensure early and continued success

by careful selection of

goals

tasks

levels of competition

focusing on successful personal performance not on winning

Self-Confidence and Self-Efficicacy

THE ROLE OF THE COACH


Self efficacy bandura s model

VICARIOUS EXPERIENCES

consist of what has been observed in others

performing a similar skill

example : observing another player in your team dribbling a soccer ball

if the model is of similar age / ability

and is successful

then this may lead to greater self-efficacy

Self-Confidence and Self-Efficicacy

SELF-EFFICACY - BANDURA’S MODEL

PERFORMANCE ACCOMPLISHMENTS

  • consist of past experiences

  • example : previously performed skill at dribbling a soccer ball

  • if this is successful

  • then this leads to greater self-efficacy

  • at this particular task

  • in the future


Self efficacy bandura s model1

VERBAL PERSUASION

encouragement can lead to greater self-efficacy

if the person giving encouragement is of high status

compared with the performer

Self-Confidence and Self-Efficicacy

SELF-EFFICACY - BANDURA’S MODEL

EMOTIONAL AROUSAL

  • if arousal is too high

    • state anxiety - A-state

  • this could lead to low self-efficacy

  • mental rehearsal / physical relaxation could

    • lead to greater confidence

    • and a calmer approach


Self confidence2

WEINBERG’S MODEL of developing self-confidence

Self-Confidence and Self-Efficicacy

SELF-CONFIDENCE


Vealey s model of sport confidence

Self-Confidence and Self-Efficicacy

VEALEY’s MODEL OF SPORT CONFIDENCE

VEALEY’S MODEL

trait sport confidence

  • the usual level of self-confidence

  • example : a discus thrower is generally confident about making a throw

competitive orientation

  • the perceived opportunity to achieve a sport performance

  • example : the discus thrower is motivated by a national championships to throw well

state sport confidence

  • the level of self confidence related to a specific situation

  • example : the discus thrower feels confident because the wind is in the right direction


Learned helplessness lh

LEARNED HELPLESSNESS

a belief acquired over time

that one has no control over events

that failure is inevitable

a feeling of hopelessness

GLOBAL LH

a person attributes failure to internal / stable factors

applied to all sports

‘I am useless at all sports’

SPECIFIC LH

a person attributes difficulties to internal / stable factors

applied to one specific sport

‘I am good at soccer but hopeless at racquet games’

ATTRIBUTION RETRAINING

low achievers need to learn to attribute success

and failure to the same reasons

as high achievers

success to stable factors

failure to unstable factors

Learned Helplessness

LEARNED HELPLESSNESS (LH)


The self concept

The SELF-CONCEPT

is the descriptive picture we have of ourselves

including :

physical attributes

attitudes

abilities

roles

emotions

representing how we see ourselves

which may not reflect reality or the way others see us

SELF-ESTEEM

the extent to which we value ourselves

this may or may not match up to the expectations of others

example :

player may take pride in an ability to tackle hard

the referee may see this as unnecessary aggression

Self Concept and Self Esteem

THE SELF-CONCEPT


Attribution

ATTRIBUTION

the process of giving reasons for behaviour

and ascribing causes for events

example : the player played badly today because the weather was poor

WEINER’S MODEL

has four attributions :

ability

effort

task difficulty

luck

arranged in two dimensions :

LOCUS OF CAUSALITY

STABILITY

with a possible third dimension :

CONTROLLABILITYmore on attribution later

Attribution Theory

ATTRIBUTION


Developing and enhancing motivation

MOTIVATION IS A COMBINATION OF

personal characteristics

situational aspects

MOTIVATION IS HIGHEST WHEN

the performer is keen to participate

the performer is keen to learn

the performer is keen to perform

the performer is keen to perform effectively

when the motivational climate is right

when the training programme is interesting and varied

MOTIVATION IS REDUCED BY

routine

competitionbetween motives

PEOPLE

have multiple motives

share motives

have unique motivational profiles

need variation in training and competition

need variation in intensity and competitiveness

need structured coaching and teaching environments

MOTIVES CHANGE OVER TIME

TEACHERS AND COACHES ARE IMPORTANT MOTIVATORS

Motivation

DEVELOPING AND ENHANCING MOTIVATION


Achievement motivation

ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION

the drive to achieve success for its own sake

related to

competitiveness

persistence

striving for perfection

influenced by

personality factors

need to achieve

need to avoid failure

situational factors

probability of success

incentive value of success

NEED TO ACHIEVE (NACH)

Tendency to approach success (Ts)

this personality type likes a challenge

likes feedback

is not afraid of failure

has high task persistence

NEED TO AVOID FAILURE (NAF)

Tendency to avoid failure (Taf)

this personality type avoids challenges

does not take risks

often gives up

does not want feedback

Motivation

ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION


Achievement motivation personality components

A =

someone with a high need to achieve

will probably have a low need to avoid failure

will choose difficult or demanding tasks which are more risky

the hard route up a rock face

Motivation

ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION - PERSONALITY COMPONENTS

B =

  • someone with a high need to avoid failure

  • will probably have a low need to achieve

  • will choose tasks which are less risky and more easily achieved

  • the easy route up the rock face


Achievement motivation situational factors

A =

probability of success low

(competing against the world champion)

therefore strive very hard to win

(incentive high)

(will be highly chuffed if win)

Motivation

ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION - SITUATIONAL FACTORS

B =

  • probability of success high

  • (competing in local club match)

  • therefore don’t need to try as hard to win

  • (incentive low)

  • (and expect to win easily)

  • (not so pleasing)


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