‘The Dose Makes the Poison’. Dr Clifford Elcombe University of Dundee and CXR Biosciences. Dose THE KEY CONCEPT in Toxicology. Father of Modern Toxicology PARACELSUS — 1564. “ All things are poisonous, only the dose makes it non-poisonous.” ( Dose alone determines toxicity ).
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‘The Dose Makes the Poison’
Dr Clifford Elcombe
University of Dundee
THE KEY CONCEPT in Toxicology
“All things are poisonous, only the dose makes it non-poisonous.”
(Dose alone determines toxicity)
honey dew melon
The study found the highest levels of pesticide residues in peaches, apples, pears…….
ALL Interactions between Chemicals and Biological Systems follow a Dose-Response Relationship
Dose Determines Whether a Chemical Will Be Beneficial or Poisonous
Beneficial DoseToxic Dose
Aspirin300 – 1,000 mg1,000 – 30,000 mg
Vitamin A5000 units/day50,000 units/day
Oxygen20% (Air)50 – 80% (Air)
Animals Sleeping (%)
Phenobarbital(mg/kg) Log Scale
Risk per 1,000,000
Dose (ppm in diet)
VSD ("virtually safe dose")
A Journalist's Handbook on Environmental Risk Assessment