Paranasal sinuses anatomy physiology and diseases
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PARANASAL SINUSES Anatomy, Physiology and Diseases. Maria Angelica M. Geronimo Group 5a. PARANASAL SINUSES. Air-filled cavities that communicate with the nasal cavities. PARANASAL SINUSES Anatomy. MAXILLARY SINUS. Medial: nasal cavity

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Paranasal sinuses anatomy physiology and diseases

PARANASAL SINUSESAnatomy, Physiology and Diseases

Maria Angelica M. Geronimo

Group 5a


Paranasal sinuses
PARANASAL SINUSES

  • Air-filled cavities that communicate with the nasal cavities



Maxillary sinus
MAXILLARY SINUS

  • Medial: nasal cavity

  • Floor: close to the root of the second premolar and first molar teeth

  • Posterior: Pterygopalatinefossa

    • Traversed by the maxillary artery, branches of the CN V and ANS


Ethmoid air cells
ETHMOID AIR CELLS

  • Labyrinthine system of small, pneumatized sinus cavities

  • Posterior: close to CN II

  • Lamina papyracea

    • Orbital plate

    • Forms the lateral bony wall that separates it from the orbit


Sphenoid sinus
SPHENOID SINUS

  • Center of the skull above the nasopharynx

  • Clivus - forms the posterior wall

  • Superior:sellaturcica + pituitary, and anterior and middle cranial fossae

  • Lateral: cavernous sinus, ICA and CN II-VI

  • Closely related to CN II


Frontal sinus
FRONTAL SINUS

  • Floor: forms the medial portion of the orbital roof

  • Anterior: anterior cranial fossa



Functions
Functions

  • Humidification

  • Vocal resonance

  • Mucus production

  • Increased olfactory area

  • Absorbs shock to the head

  • Regulation of intranasal pressure







Paranasal sinuses complications

PARANASAL SINUSESComplications


Mucocoele
MUCOCOELE

  • Mucus containing cyst found in the sinuses

  • Frequently seen in the maxillary sinuses (mucus retention cysts)

  • Ethmoids or frontal sinuses: swelling in the forehead

  • Sphenoids sinus: diplopiaor impaired vision


Pyocoele
PYOCOELE

  • Similar to a mucocoele but contains pus

  • Treatment: surgical removal and re-establishment of a good drainage


Acute meningitis
ACUTE MENINGITIS

  • Infections may spread through venous channels or directly from neighboring sinuses such as posterior wall of the frontal sinus

  • Fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, signs of meningealirritation


Dural abscess
DURAL ABSCESS

  • Collection of pus between dura and internal table of the skull usually seen in frontal sinusitis

  • Intractable headache, spiking fever, may have signs of meningeal irritation

  • Increased ICP


Brain abscess
BRAIN ABSCESS

  • Occurs through directly extending thrombophlebitis

  • Brain may be contaminated at the peak of a severe suppurative sinusitis

  • Chills and fever, lack of appetite, weight loss, nausea and vomiting

  • Treatment: Massive IV antibiotics, surgical drainage


Osteomyelitis
OSTEOMYELITIS

  • Commonly seen in frontal sinusitis

  • Erosion of the frontal bone

  • Localized forehead pain, fever, chills, swelling over brow area

  • Radiographs: “moth-eaten” appearance of the margins of the sinuses


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