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PARANASAL SINUSES Anatomy, Physiology and Diseases. Maria Angelica M. Geronimo Group 5a. PARANASAL SINUSES. Air-filled cavities that communicate with the nasal cavities. PARANASAL SINUSES Anatomy. MAXILLARY SINUS. Medial: nasal cavity

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paranasal sinuses anatomy physiology and diseases

PARANASAL SINUSESAnatomy, Physiology and Diseases

Maria Angelica M. Geronimo

Group 5a

paranasal sinuses
PARANASAL SINUSES
  • Air-filled cavities that communicate with the nasal cavities
maxillary sinus
MAXILLARY SINUS
  • Medial: nasal cavity
  • Floor: close to the root of the second premolar and first molar teeth
  • Posterior: Pterygopalatinefossa
    • Traversed by the maxillary artery, branches of the CN V and ANS
ethmoid air cells
ETHMOID AIR CELLS
  • Labyrinthine system of small, pneumatized sinus cavities
  • Posterior: close to CN II
  • Lamina papyracea
    • Orbital plate
    • Forms the lateral bony wall that separates it from the orbit
sphenoid sinus
SPHENOID SINUS
  • Center of the skull above the nasopharynx
  • Clivus - forms the posterior wall
  • Superior:sellaturcica + pituitary, and anterior and middle cranial fossae
  • Lateral: cavernous sinus, ICA and CN II-VI
  • Closely related to CN II
frontal sinus
FRONTAL SINUS
  • Floor: forms the medial portion of the orbital roof
  • Anterior: anterior cranial fossa
functions
Functions
  • Humidification
  • Vocal resonance
  • Mucus production
  • Increased olfactory area
  • Absorbs shock to the head
  • Regulation of intranasal pressure
mucocoele
MUCOCOELE
  • Mucus containing cyst found in the sinuses
  • Frequently seen in the maxillary sinuses (mucus retention cysts)
  • Ethmoids or frontal sinuses: swelling in the forehead
  • Sphenoids sinus: diplopiaor impaired vision
pyocoele
PYOCOELE
  • Similar to a mucocoele but contains pus
  • Treatment: surgical removal and re-establishment of a good drainage
acute meningitis
ACUTE MENINGITIS
  • Infections may spread through venous channels or directly from neighboring sinuses such as posterior wall of the frontal sinus
  • Fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, signs of meningealirritation
dural abscess
DURAL ABSCESS
  • Collection of pus between dura and internal table of the skull usually seen in frontal sinusitis
  • Intractable headache, spiking fever, may have signs of meningeal irritation
  • Increased ICP
brain abscess
BRAIN ABSCESS
  • Occurs through directly extending thrombophlebitis
  • Brain may be contaminated at the peak of a severe suppurative sinusitis
  • Chills and fever, lack of appetite, weight loss, nausea and vomiting
  • Treatment: Massive IV antibiotics, surgical drainage
osteomyelitis
OSTEOMYELITIS
  • Commonly seen in frontal sinusitis
  • Erosion of the frontal bone
  • Localized forehead pain, fever, chills, swelling over brow area
  • Radiographs: “moth-eaten” appearance of the margins of the sinuses
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