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RURAL ROAD NETWORK PLANNING USING GIS -A case study in Palakkad district. Guided by Presented by Prof.M.V.L.R. Anjaneyulu Keerthi.M.G Ceo4m007. STRUCTURE OF PRESENTATION. Introduction Scope and Objectives of the Study

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RURAL ROAD NETWORK PLANNING USING GIS -A case study in Palakkad district

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Rural road network planning using gis a case study in palakkad district l.jpg

RURAL ROAD NETWORK PLANNING USING GIS-A case study in Palakkad district

Guided byPresented by

Prof.M.V.L.R. AnjaneyuluKeerthi.M.G

Ceo4m007


Structure of presentation l.jpg

STRUCTURE OF PRESENTATION

  • Introduction

  • Scope and Objectives of the Study

  • Literature Review

  • Brief Review of the Software Used

  • Data Collection

  • Analysis of Data

  • Conclusions

  • Limitations and Scope for Future Study

  • References


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INTRODUCTION

As roads are the only means of transport available to most of the rural settlements, it plays a predominant role in the comprehensive development of a society. It acts as the lifeline of the rural economy and society.


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STATUS OF CONNECTIVITY OF VILLAGES


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SCOPE OF THE STUDY

  • Palakkad is a typical hill district in Kerala having a predominant share of rural population.

  • Detailed Panchayath Resource Maps based on cadastral maps are prepared by the Kerala Land Use Board.

  • Network planning mainly aims to improve flexibility of travel and reduce the circuity.


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OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  • To review the rural road network development strategies that have been recommended by researchers.

  • Collection of secondary data,preparation of maps and database in GIS.

  • Identification of major villages or the future growth villages

    (contd…)


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  • To generate road networks based on alternative scientific procedures

  • Evaluation of the alternative networks using graph theoretical indices

  • To suggest a methodology for link prioritization


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LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Mineetha (1992), in her work on "Generation and testing of alternatives for rural road network development -a case study of Kozhikode District", has made an attempt to identify village hierarchy based on the trip rate produced from each village.Factor analysis was used for analysis.

  • Purushottam,et al(1993)in their paper “Scientific preparation of Master plans for Rural Roads in Andra Pradesh” has suggested that rural road network planning is to be carried out in three stages viz: node choice, link choice ,network choice which are decided on the basis of Transport Priority index,Link Priority index and Village Affinity index.

  • Raji(1997),in her Ph.D thesis work “Rural Road Network Planning through Transportation Related Hierarchy of Settlements” developed a systematic procedure to identify hierarchy of settlements is done in a multidimensional framework using non hierarchical clustering. (Contd…)


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  • Daya Krishnankutty(1997),in her dissertation work on “Rural Road Network Planning for Kasargod district”, conducted primary household surveys to understand the travel characteristics of the rural community and predicted the average trip rate of villages using data from census reports and using multiple regression analysis.

  • Prasada Rao, et al(2003) in their paper “Information system for rural road network planning - a case study”,GIS has been used for planning of rural road connectivity for a Community Development block and the information system was developed for village and rural roads.

  • Praveen Kumar , et al(2004) in their paper “Facility Based Network Planning of Rural Roads Using GIS”, a computer based user friendly rural road network design model was developed.


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GRAPH THEORETICAL INDICES FOR NETWORK EVALUATION

Connectivity Measures

Alpha Index - Measure of redundancy

Beta Index - Measure of completeness

Gamma Index-Measure of connectivity


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Accessibility Measures

  • Mean Associate Number: Gives the total length of links needed to connect a link to the most distant node

  • Mean Dispersion Index: Gives the total number of links needed to connect any node with all other nodes in the network

  • Circuity Index: Measures the directness of route connecting two nodes


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Components of GIS


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REVIEW OF THE SOFTWARE USED


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TERMINOLOGIES USED IN GEOMEDIA

  • GeoWorkspace

  • Co ordinate system

    Geographic

    Projected

  • Warehouse

  • Windows

    Map Window

    Data Window

    Layout Window

  • Legend

  • Feature and feature class


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FUNCTIONS OF GEOMEDIA

  • Digitization

  • Development Of Database

  • Running Queries

  • Buffer Analysis

  • Thematic Mapping


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Map Window with Legend Entries


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DATA COLLECTION


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STUDY AREA

  • Ottapalam Block

  • Mannarkkad Block

    Latitude between 10021’and 11014’

    Longitude between 76002’and 76054’


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ADMINISTRATIVE PROFILE OF THE BLOCKS IN PALAKKAD DISTRICT


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CATEGORYWISE LENGTH OF PWD ROADS IN PALAKKAD DISTRICT


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WBM-1

WBM-15

Earthen-53

Earthen-43

Bituminous-46

Bituminous-42

Distribution of Panchayath Roads

Ottapalam

Mannarkkad


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Work-30.79

Shopping-12.89

Health-4.60

Social&Recreation-20.43

others-2.64

Purpose Wise Distribution of Trips


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GIS IN RURAL ROAD PLANNING

  • An effective tool for village and road information system.

  • Concurrent access to multiple users which provide user transactions in an efficient manner.

  • It is an indispensable tool for data storage in planning.

  • Spatial analysis capability along with thematic mapping, network analysis charting etc are important.


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Attribute Table Showing Ward Level Data Of Mannarkkad Block


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Ward Boundaries with Facilities of Mannarkkad Block


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Map Showing Existing Roads With Inventory Data in Ottapalam Block


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Thematic Map Based On Population Of Ottapalam Block


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Thematic Mapping Based on Accessibility to Krishi Bhavan in OttapalamBlock


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Thematic Mapping Based on Accessibility to College-Mannarkkad Block


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Thematic Mapping Based on Accessibility to High School-

Mannarkkad Block


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ANALYSIS OF DATA


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FUNCTIONAL PLANNING APPROACH

  • Deals with the locational aspects of various facilities in a well distributed manner to cater to the socioeconomic needs for balanced regional growth.

  • Prioritization of settlement is based on an index known as settlement index or utility value.

    SIi=settlement index for habitation i

    Wxi=weight for xth facility for habitation i


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RELATIVE WEIGHTS FOR FACILITY VARIABLES FOR COMPUTING SETTLEMENT INDEX


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PANCHAYATWISE LIST OF WARDS IN OTTAPALAM BLOCK AND CALCULATED SI


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ALL HABITATIONS IN

THE BLOCK

UNCONNECTED

CONNECTED

PRIORITISED

HABITATIONS

WARD INDEX

ALL CATEGORIES OF ALL -WEATHER ROAD NETWORK AND CONNECTED HABITATIONS

POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVE LINKS FOR MAKING CONNECTIVITY FOR EACH UNCONNECTED SETTLEMENTS

AVAILABLE ROAD LINKS

SELECTION OF THE BEST LINK OUT OF THE ALTERNATIVES FOR EACH UNCONNECTED AND PRIORITISED SETTLEMENTS

If not connected next prioritized habitation is formed

OPTIMUM NETWORK BASED ON EFFICIENCY AND ACCESS REQUIRED BY UNCONNECTED HABITATIONS UNTILL ALL SETTLEMENTS ARE CONNECTED

Approach for Network Connectivity


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PREDICTION OF TRIP RATES

Trip rates are calculated using a regression equation

T= 60.797+6.156U1/2+30.518U1/3-130.189U1/4+63.269U1/5-

2.228 (log H) 1/2

Where T= Trip rate of the ward

U=Utility Value or Ward index

H= Number of occupied households in the village


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Trip Rates from the Wards of Ottapalam Block


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IDENTIFICATION OF SETTLEMENT HIERARCHY

By Clustering

K-means clustering is done with the Utility Value of the ward as input.The wards in each of the blocks are classified into four clusters.Clustering is done in such a way that within variance of clusters is less compared to among variance.


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Hierarchy of Settlements Based on SI for Ottapalam Block


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Hierarchy of Settlements Based on SI for Mannarkkad Block


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BY TRIP RATE

Trip Rate can be used as a criterion for identification of settlement hierarchy.It measures the intensity of activities within a settlement. Trip rate frequency distribution diagram is used.


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% wards

Cumulative Trip Distribution Diagram-Ottapalam


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Cumulative Trip Distribution Diagram-Mannarkkad Block


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CLASSIFICATION USING TRIP RATE IN OTTAPALAM BLOCK


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CLASSIFICATION USING TRIP RATE IN MANNARKKAD BLOCK


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Comparison of settlement hierarchy by Clustering and Trip Rate

Contd…


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COMPARISON


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PHILOSOPHY1 FOR NETWORK GENERATION

  • All higher order settlements are given connection to the existing roads.

  • All lower order settlements which are not having connections or having connections only through a single branch of a spanning tree is given connection to a higher order settlement or to another road in the vicinity, whichever is nearer.

  • Inter settlement connections are given.


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PHILOSOPHY 2FOR NETWORK GENERATION

  • All higher order settlements are given connection to the existing roads

  • All lower order settlements are given connection to higher order settlements in the hierarchical order as far as possible. If in any situations this is not possible, then connections are given to the nearest higher order settlement

  • Inter settlement connections are given


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Existing Road Network - Ottapalam Block


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Road Network Generated Using Philosophy 1- Ottapalam Block


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Road Network Generated Using Philosophy 2- Ottapalam Block


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Existing Road Network – Mannarkkad Block


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Road Network Generated Using Philosophy1- Mannarkkad Block


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Road Network Generated Using Philosophy 2- Mannarkkad Block


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EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE NETWORKS

Structural Properties of Ottapalam Block


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STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF MANNARKKAD BLOCK


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Calculation of Connectivity Indices Using Geomedia Professional


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METHODOLOGY FOR LINK PRIORITIZATION

  • Based on travel demand

  • By Sensitivity Analysis Using Structural Properties


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Additional Links with ID to be added to Existing links in OttapalamBlock


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LINK PRIORITIZATION USING TRAVEL DEMAND


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LINK PRIORITIZATION USING SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS


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RECOMMENDED PROCEDURE FOR RURAL ROAD NETWORK PLANNING

  • Study the secondary data collected .

  • Prioritize the settlements by its Utility Value

  • Stratify the connected and unconnected settlements into different orders by using Clustering with input as the Utility Value of the settlement.

  • Rank ordering of settlements can also be done by using trip rates.


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  • Provide connection of higher order settlement to existing roads and lower orders to either the existing roads or higher order settlements whichever is nearer. Intersettlement connections are given.

  • Evaluation of the alternative networks generated by using graph theoretical indices.

  • Prioritization of links based on travel demand or sensitivity analysis.


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CONCLUSIONS

  • Literature review suggests that the development of rural roads network linkages based on the size of settlement as the sole criterion is erroneous.

  • The maps of two blocks of Palakkad district, Ottapalam and Mannarkkad are digitized using Geomedia Professional 5.2.The ward level information and road inventory data are stored in GIS database which is used for analysis.

  • The main advantage of using GIS in this study is to access and analyze spatially distributed data with respect to its actual spatial location overlaid on a base map.

  • The planning is mainly based on functional planning approach .(Contd..)


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  • An index derived from a set of composite variables consisting of demographic ,socioeconomic infrastructural development and policy variables is used to prioritize the settlements.

  • Two alternative strategies are proposed for rural road network development.

  • Evaluation using graph theoretical indices indicates the first alternative which recommends direct connection irrespective of hierarchical order is suited for the study area.

  • A methodology for link prioritization based on travel demand or sensitivity analysis is suggested.


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LIMITATIONS

  • The study is limited to two blocks of Palakkad district

  • The physical feasibility of the links should be checked before real life implementation of the network .In this study the physical feasibility is not considered due to time and other resource constraints.

  • The methodology for link prioritization did not consider factors like cost,travel time etc.


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SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK

  • By the effective utilization of the resources a strong database in GIS environment ,the Village and Road Information System can be built.This will be very useful for problem identification, planning and allocation of various socioeconomic facilities.

  • Physical feasibility can be checked using digital toposheets.

  • An optimal methodology for link prioritization can be made taking into account various factors like cost,travel time,travel demand ,structural properties.


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REFERENCES

  • Daya Krishnankutty (1997), “Rural Road Network Planning for Kasargod District”, M.Tech thesis submitted to Calicut University.

  • Khanna.S.K and Justo C.E.G, “A text book on Highway Engineering”, Nem Chand and Bros,Roorkee

  • Kumar.A and Tillotson (1989), “A comprehensive Planning Methodology for Rural Roads in India”, IRC Journal, Vol 9-2, pp 290-332.

  • Lakshmana Rao.K.M and Jayasree.K (2005), “Road Network-Design Methods and Evaluation Patterns”, Indian Highways, April 2005, pp 33-53.

  • Mahendru A.K, Sikdar P.K and Khanna.S.K (1982), “Nodal Points in Rural Road Network Planning”, Indian Highways Vol 10 -4, pp 5-10.


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  • Mineetha.C (1992), “Generation and testing of Alternatives for Rural Road Network Development”, M.Tech thesis submitted to Calicut University

  • Minimal.K (1992), “Development of Land use Transportation Models for Rural Road Network Planning in Thrissur district”, M.Tech thesis submitted to Calicut University.

  • Prasad Rao, Kangadurai.B, Jain.P.K and Neelam Jain (2003), “Information System for Rural Road Network Planning-A case study”, Map India Conference 2003. www.gisdevelopment.net/proceedings/mapindia-2003

  • Praveen Kumar, Manoj Arora and Marem Sudhakar (2004), “Facility Based Network Planning of Rural Roads Using GIS”, Indian Highways, July 2004, pp 5-22


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  • Purushottam.Y.S, Murahari Reddy.S, Kesavan Nair.S and MaheshChand (1993), “Scientific preparation of Master Plans for Rural Roads in Andra Pradesh”, IRC journal Vol 52-3, pp 357-410.

  • Raji.A.K (1997), “Rural Road Network Planning through Transportation Related Hierarchy of Settlements”, Ph.D thesis submitted to Calicut University.

  • Ramayya.T.V and Anantharamaiah.K.M (1986), “Impact of Transportation Facility on Economical Development in Rural Areas”, Proceedings of the international conference on Transportation System Studies.

  • Rural Roads Manual (2002), Indian Road Congress Special Publication 20, New Delhi

  • Sikdar.P.K (2001), “Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana-A mission for Rural Connectivity by All Weather Roads”, Indian Highways May 2001, pp81-94


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  • Sikdar.P.K, Neelam Jain, Pankaj Gupta and Kishore Kumar (2003), “Geographic Information System in Transportation Planning”, Map India Conference 2003

  • Srinivas.N.S, Ramesh.V.N, Satyamurthy.T.J, Robinson.D and Ramakrishnan.T (1992), “District Level Planning of PWD Road Network-Palghat”, Indian Highways March 1992, pp31-38.

  • Swaminathan.C.G, Lal.N.B and Ashok Kumar (1982), “A Systems Approach to Rural Road Development”, IRC journal, Vol-42(4), paper no.347

  • http://www.censusindia.net/


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THANK YOU


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