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Vertebrates. Chapter 34. 4 Chordate Characteristics. 1. Notochord Long, flexible rod between digestive tube and nerve cord NOT the spinal cord 2. Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord Formed from ectoderm 3. Pharyngeal Clefts (Gills) Pouches along side of pharynx 4. Post-anal Tail

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vertebrates

Vertebrates

Chapter 34

4 chordate characteristics
4 Chordate Characteristics
  • 1. Notochord
      • Long, flexible rod between digestive tube and nerve cord
      • NOT the spinal cord
  • 2. Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord
      • Formed from ectoderm
  • 3. Pharyngeal Clefts (Gills)
      • Pouches along side of pharynx
  • 4. Post-anal Tail
      • Do I need to explain this one?
chordata not vertebrata classes
Chordata NOT Vertebrata Classes
  • Cephalochordata
    • Lancelets
  • Urochordata
    • Tunicates
vertebrate classes
Vertebrate Classes
  • Agnathasomes
  • Fishes
    • Chondrichthyes
    • Osteichthyes
  • Amphibia
  • Reptiles
  • Birds
  • Mammals
vertebrate classes1
Vertebrate Classes
  • Lampreys & Hagfish (Agnathostomes)
    • Oldest vertebrates
    • Jawless, parasitic, cartilaginous skeleton
chondrichthyes
Chondrichthyes
  • Cartilaginous Fishes (Chondrichthyes)
    • Cartilaginous skeleton
    • Sharks & Rays
osteichthyes
Osteichthyes
  • Bony fishes
  • Bony exoskeleton
  • Swim Bladder
amphibia
Amphibia
  • Frogs and salamanders
  • Gas exchange occurs across the thin, moist skin
  • External fertilization & external development in an aquatic environment
amniotes
Amniotes
  • Terrestrial tetrapods with terrestrially-adapted egg
  • Reptiles, Birds (Aves), and Mammals
  • Amniotic Egg
    • Adaptation to living on land (especially dry land)
    • Shell that retains water
amniotic egg
Amniotic Egg

4 Extra embryonic Membranes:

1. Amnion – encloses the embryo in fluid sac  Shock absorption

 Amniotic fluid

Chorion & Allantois– Gas exchange

Allantios – disposal sac for metabolic wastes

Yolk Sac – contains the yolk (nutrient stockpile)

reptilia
Reptilia
  • Turtles, lizards, snakes, alligators, & dinosaurs
  • Keratin-containing scales - Reduce water loss
  • Lungs for obtaining oxygen
  • Internal fertilization (cloacal kiss)
  • Uric Acid – nitrogenous waste
  • Amniotic egg
  • Ectothermic – control body temp. through external means
birds
Birds
  • Wings
  • Reptilian Characters
    • Amniotic egg
    • Leg scales with keratin
  • Adapted for flight
    • Light, hollow bones
    • Few organs
    • Feathers
birds page 2
Birds (Page 2)
  • Endothermic
    • Maintain warm, consistent body temperature
    • Feathers + fat layer insulate birds
    • High rate of metabolism
  • 4-Chambered heart
mammal characteristics
Mammal Characteristics
  • Milk
  • Mammary glands – produce milk
  • Body covering of fur or Hair
  • Internal fertilization
    • Most are born rather than hatched
mammal types
Mammal Types
  • Monotremes
    • Egg-laying mammals
    • Have hair & produce milk
  • Marsupials
    • Born early & complete development in marsupium (pouch) while nursing
  • Eutherians (Placental mammals)
    • Long pregnancy period
    • Development proceeds inside uterus
primates
Primates
  • Order that contains humans, monkeys, & gorillas
  • Opposable thumbs
  • Large brains
  • Forward-oriented eyes
  • Intensive child rearing
  • Complex social structure
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