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Vertebrates. Chapter 34. 4 Chordate Characteristics. 1. Notochord Long, flexible rod between digestive tube and nerve cord NOT the spinal cord 2. Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord Formed from ectoderm 3. Pharyngeal Clefts (Gills) Pouches along side of pharynx 4. Post-anal Tail

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Vertebrates

Vertebrates

Chapter 34


4 chordate characteristics
4 Chordate Characteristics

  • 1. Notochord

    • Long, flexible rod between digestive tube and nerve cord

    • NOT the spinal cord

  • 2. Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord

    • Formed from ectoderm

  • 3. Pharyngeal Clefts (Gills)

    • Pouches along side of pharynx

  • 4. Post-anal Tail

    • Do I need to explain this one?


  • Chordata not vertebrata classes
    Chordata NOT Vertebrata Classes

    • Cephalochordata

      • Lancelets

    • Urochordata

      • Tunicates


    Vertebrate classes
    Vertebrate Classes

    • Agnathasomes

    • Fishes

      • Chondrichthyes

      • Osteichthyes

    • Amphibia

    • Reptiles

    • Birds

    • Mammals


    Vertebrate classes1
    Vertebrate Classes

    • Lampreys & Hagfish (Agnathostomes)

      • Oldest vertebrates

      • Jawless, parasitic, cartilaginous skeleton


    Chondrichthyes
    Chondrichthyes

    • Cartilaginous Fishes (Chondrichthyes)

      • Cartilaginous skeleton

      • Sharks & Rays


    Osteichthyes
    Osteichthyes

    • Bony fishes

    • Bony exoskeleton

    • Swim Bladder


    Amphibia
    Amphibia

    • Frogs and salamanders

    • Gas exchange occurs across the thin, moist skin

    • External fertilization & external development in an aquatic environment


    Amniotes
    Amniotes

    • Terrestrial tetrapods with terrestrially-adapted egg

    • Reptiles, Birds (Aves), and Mammals

    • Amniotic Egg

      • Adaptation to living on land (especially dry land)

      • Shell that retains water


    Amniotic egg
    Amniotic Egg

    4 Extra embryonic Membranes:

    1. Amnion – encloses the embryo in fluid sac  Shock absorption

     Amniotic fluid

    Chorion & Allantois– Gas exchange

    Allantios – disposal sac for metabolic wastes

    Yolk Sac – contains the yolk (nutrient stockpile)


    Reptilia
    Reptilia

    • Turtles, lizards, snakes, alligators, & dinosaurs

    • Keratin-containing scales - Reduce water loss

    • Lungs for obtaining oxygen

    • Internal fertilization (cloacal kiss)

    • Uric Acid – nitrogenous waste

    • Amniotic egg

    • Ectothermic – control body temp. through external means


    Birds
    Birds

    • Wings

    • Reptilian Characters

      • Amniotic egg

      • Leg scales with keratin

    • Adapted for flight

      • Light, hollow bones

      • Few organs

      • Feathers


    Birds page 2
    Birds (Page 2)

    • Endothermic

      • Maintain warm, consistent body temperature

      • Feathers + fat layer insulate birds

      • High rate of metabolism

    • 4-Chambered heart


    Mammal characteristics
    Mammal Characteristics

    • Milk

    • Mammary glands – produce milk

    • Body covering of fur or Hair

    • Internal fertilization

      • Most are born rather than hatched


    Mammal types
    Mammal Types

    • Monotremes

      • Egg-laying mammals

      • Have hair & produce milk

    • Marsupials

      • Born early & complete development in marsupium (pouch) while nursing

    • Eutherians (Placental mammals)

      • Long pregnancy period

      • Development proceeds inside uterus


    Primates
    Primates

    • Order that contains humans, monkeys, & gorillas

    • Opposable thumbs

    • Large brains

    • Forward-oriented eyes

    • Intensive child rearing

    • Complex social structure


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