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The Origin of the Universe. Massimiliano Galeazzi. MALS 601. Miami, 20 November 2002. Summary. The Scientific method The view of the Universe before 1900: The Greeks The Heliocentric system The view of the Universe after 1900: Einstein Theory of relativity Beyond the solar system

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The origin of the universe

The Origin of the Universe

Massimiliano Galeazzi

MALS 601

Miami, 20 November 2002


Summary
Summary

  • The Scientific method

  • The view of the Universe before 1900:

    • The Greeks

    • The Heliocentric system

  • The view of the Universe after 1900:

    • Einstein Theory of relativity

    • Beyond the solar system

    • Hubble law

  • The Big Bang theory


  • The scientific method

    Philosophy

    The Scientific Method

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification


    Observations

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    • Sun

    Observations


    Observations1

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    Observations

    • Sun

    • Moon


    Observations2

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    Observations

    • Sun

    • Moon

    • Stars


    Observations3

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    Observations

    • Sun

    • Moon

    • Stars


    Theory

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    Philosophy

    Theory 2

    Theory

    Theory 1


    Geocentric theory

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    Philosophy

    Geocentric theory

    • Movement is not so simple

    • The movement is not perfectly periodic

    • There are monthly, annual, and longer term changes


    Geocentric theory1

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    Philosophy

    Mars

    Geocentric theory

    • Movement is no so simple

    • Planets


    Geocentric theory2

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    Philosophy

    Geocentric theory

    • Movement is no so simple

    • Planets

    • Distance to the objects


    Geocentric theory3

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    Philosophy

    Geocentric theory

    Ptolemy, The Almagest,

    A.D. c.100-c.178


    Geocentric theory4

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    Philosophy

    Geocentric theory


    Geocentric theory5

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    Philosophy

    Geocentric theory

    SUN

    Venus

    EARTH

    Mercury


    Geocentric theory6

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    Philosophy

    Simplicity

    Geocentric theory

    SUN

    Venus

    EARTH

    Mercury


    Simpler theories

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    “Simpler” theories

    Heliocentric system: the planets (including Earth) rotate around the Sun, and the Earth is also spinning around its axisPythagoreans, Aristarchus of Samos, Plato (?), Copernicus

    “Hybrid” geocentric system: the Earth is not moving, the planets rotate around the Sun that rotates around the EarthHeraclides of Pontus, Tycho Brahe


    Heliocentric theory

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    Heliocentric theory

    Nicolaus Copernicus,On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, 1473-1543

    Johannes Kepler,

    Epitome of Copernican Astronomy,

    The Harmonies of the World,

    1571-1630

    Galileo Galilei,

    Sidereus Nuncius,

    1564-1642


    Heliocentric theory1

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    Heliocentric theory


    The phase of venus

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    The phase of Venus


    The phase of venus1

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    The phase of Venus

    Galileo Galilei, c1610


    Parallax

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    Parallax


    Parallax1

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    Parallax

    winter


    Parallax2

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    Parallax

    summer


    Parallax3

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    Parallax

    summer

    1832

    Alpha Centauri (nearest star), Henderson

    Vega, Friedrich von Struve

    61 Cygni, Friedrich Bessel


    Beyond the solar system

    1) High concentration of stars along the milky way

     The stars are distributed more in a disk than in as sphere

    Beyond the solar system


    Beyond the solar system1
    Beyond the solar system

    2) The star distribution in the milky way is asymmetric, with respect to the Earth, but is rather symmetric with respect to a point in the constellation of Sagittarius (Shapley, 1915)

     The Sun is not at the center of the Galaxy


    Beyond the solar system2
    Beyond the solar system

    3) There are other galaxies in the Universe in addition to ours (Hubble)


    Beyond the solar system3
    Beyond the solar system

    4) There are billions of galaxies in the Universe

     Solar System  Galaxy  Universe

     COSMOLOGY




    Doppler effect in galaxies

    Movement

    Fast

    toward us

    Slow

    toward us

    Not moving

    Slow

    away from us

    Fast

    away from us

    Doppler Effect in Galaxies

    Earth


    Hubble law redshift

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

     Speed = H · distance (H = Hubble constant)

    Hubble law (redshift)

    ALL DISTANT GALAXIES ARE RECEDING FROM US

    Edwin Hubble

    1929


    Consequences of hubble law
    Consequences of Hubble Law

    If all the galaxies move away from us, does it mean that we are at the center of the Universe?

    What happens if we rewind the tape of the Universe?

    How old is the Universe?


    Expansion of the universe

    Raisin Cake

    Balloon

    Expansion of the Universe

    If all the galaxies move away from us, does it mean that we are at the center of the Universe?


    Expansion of the universe1

    REWIND

    Expansion of the Universe

    What happens if we rewind the tape of the Universe?


    Age of the universe
    Age of the Universe

     speed = H · distance

    AGE OF THE UNIVERSE IS APRROXIMATELY THE INVERSE OF THE HUBBLE CONSTANT:

    T ~ 1/H

    T ~2 1010 years = 20,000,000,000 years


    Evolution of the universe

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    Evolution of the Universe

    What happened at the beginning?

    What will happen in the future?

    • COLD BIG BANG

    • HOT BIG BANG


    The big bang theory

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    The Big Bang Theory


    The big bang theory1

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    The Big Bang Theory


    The big bang theory2

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    YES!!!

    Speed of light: 300,000 Km/s ~ 675,000,000 Miles/h

    distance = 20,000,000,000 light years

    ~100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 Miles

    The Big Bang Theory

    Can we try to “see” the explosion?


    The cosmic microwave background

    Observations

    Theory

    Predictions

    Experimental verification

    The cosmic microwave background

    Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, 1965

    (Nobel Prize in 1978)



    What happened before the big bang

    Philosophy

    What happened before the Big Bang?

    ?


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