slide1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Application of Risk Analysis / HACCP:

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 31

Application of Risk Analysis / HACCP: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 130 Views
  • Uploaded on

Application of Risk Analysis / HACCP: Case of Milk-Borne Public Health Risks Analysis in Milk Markets in Kenya. Presentation at Workshop on Impacts of Urban and Peri-urban Livestock Systems on Public and Ecosystem Health in Nigeria 18-19 Sept 2002 ILRI-IBADAN, NIGERIA. A. Omore ILRI-Kenya.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Application of Risk Analysis / HACCP: ' - liza


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Application of Risk Analysis / HACCP:

Case of Milk-Borne Public Health Risks Analysis in Milk Markets in Kenya

Presentation at Workshop on Impacts of Urban and Peri-urban Livestock Systems on Public and Ecosystem Health in Nigeria

18-19 Sept 2002

ILRI-IBADAN, NIGERIA

A. Omore

ILRI-Kenya

slide2

Major issues in regulation for food safety in dairy markets in Kenya

Limited information base for policy formulation, therefore reliance on Western models

However, raw milk markets dominate mainly because most consumers refuse to pay higher costs that pasteurisation and packaging incurs

Need for risk information to balance trade-offs between food safety and economics

Risk analysis is the right approach

slide3

Percent milk marketed informally in selected countries in Africa & elsewhere

Sub-Saharan Africa Percent

Kenya 88

Tanzania 98

Uganda 90

Central America

Nicaragua 86

Costa Rica 44

South Asia

India 83

Sri Lanka 40

Typical Small milk trader

in Kenya

slide4

Assessment of risks

S

A

M

B

U

R

U

T

A

R

M

A

K

W

E

T

R

A

N

S

-

N

Z

O

I

A

I

S

I

O

L

O

M

T

.

E

L

G

O

N

B

A

R

I

N

G

O

B

U

N

G

O

M

A

U

A

S

I

N

G

I

S

H

U

I

B

U

S

A

L

G

E

E

Y

O

N

Y

A

M

B

E

N

E

G

K

A

K

A

M

E

A

L

A

I

K

I

P

I

A

M

E

R

U

N

A

N

D

I

K

O

I

B

A

T

E

K

V

I

H

I

G

A

S

I

A

Y

A

M

E

R

U

S

O

U

T

H

K

I

S

U

M

U

N

Y

A

N

D

A

R

U

A

T

H

A

R

A

K

A

N

A

K

U

R

U

K

E

R

I

C

H

O

N

Y

E

R

I

E

M

B

U

K

I

R

I

N

Y

A

G

A

N

Y

A

M

I

R

A

K

I

S

I

I

H

O

M

A

_

B

A

Y

M

B

E

E

R

E

M

U

R

A

N

G

A

B

O

M

E

T

G

U

C

H

A

M

A

R

A

G

U

A

M

I

G

O

R

I

T

H

I

K

A

K

I

A

M

B

U

K

U

R

I

A

N

A

I

R

O

B

I

N

A

R

O

K

M

A

C

H

A

K

O

S

N

o

.

p

e

r

S

q

K

m

0

-

2

.

1

T

A

N

A

R

I

V

E

R

K

I

T

U

I

2

.

1

-

1

0

.8

1

0

.

8

-

3

3

.

9

M

A

K

U

E

N

I

3

3

.

9

-

5

6

.

2

K

A

J

I

A

D

O

5

6

.

2

-

1

3

1

.

1

Study sites and Dairy Density

  • Nakuru/
  • Narok:
  • Extensive production
  • Medium market access
  • Exotic &
  • Zebu cattle
  • Nairobi/
  • Kiambu:
  • Intensive production
  • High market access
  • Exotic cattle

Sites differentiated between levels of market access and production system

slide5

Study methods

Participatory research and structured data collected between 1999 and 2001

Data included milk pathways, handling practices by market agents and consumers, laboratory hazard assessments, economic & GIS

slide6

Analytical approaches

Health Risk Analysis for each hazard using HACCP as a tool/guideline

What is Risk analysis?

What is HACCP?

slide7

Analytical approaches (cont’d)

Definitions: Risk and Hazard

Risk = Fn of both probability (likelihood) & magnitude (impact) of an adverse effect from a hazard

Hazard = A biological, chemical or physical agent in food that may have adverse health effect

slide8

Analytical approaches (cont’d)

Definitions: Risk Analysis Components

Risk Analysis is a process consisting of three components:

1. Risk Assessment

2. Risk Management

3. Risk Communication

slide9

Analytical approaches (cont’d)

Definitions: Risk Assessment

  • 1. Risk Assessment = The scientific evaluation of adverse health effects from exposure to a food-borne hazard. It involves these steps:
  • Hazard identification
  • Hazard characterisation: qualitative / quantitative / dose-response
  • Exposure assessment: evaluation of degree of intake
  • Risk characterisation: integration of above and reference to a population and uncertainties
slide10

Analytical approaches (cont’d)

Definitions: Risk Mgt & Communication

2. Risk Management: The process of weighing policy alternatives to accept, minimise or reduce assessed risks and to select and implement appropriate options

3. Risk Communication: An interactive process of productive exchange of information with stakeholders

slide11

Analytical approaches (cont’d)

Definitions: HACCP

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a tool/guideline for risk analysis.

Originally applied to food for astronauts

HACCP is designed to prevent problems before they occur and to correct deviations as soon as they are detected. Such preventive control systems with documentation and verification are widely recognized as the most effective approach for ensuring food safety.

HACCP reduces regulatory enforcement costs

slide12

Analytical approaches (cont’d)

Definitions: HACCP Steps/principles

  • Assessment of risks in the food chain (use conceptual flow-diagrams)
  • Determination of critical control points (CCPs): Points for remedial action
  • Determination of Critical Limits (CL)
  • Development of monitoring systems
  • Implementation of monitoring procedures
    • - Corrective action, Documentation & Verification

Challenge: Adapting HACCP concept to informal food market situations

slide13

Analytical approaches (cont’d)

Laboratory Hazard Assessment in Kenya

  • Total & Coliforms Bacteria.
  • Butter-fat
  • Added water
  • Brucella abortus
  • E. coli 0157:H7
  • Antibiotics & antibacterials
  • Bovine TB (M. bovis) in humans

: SPC

: Gerber Method

: Specific gravity

: MRT, ELISA

: Culture & typing

: Charm tests

: Culture and PCR

Hazards to be investigated were identified at the initial stakeholder consultation

slide14

Analytical approaches (cont’d)

Risk factors (Risk characterisation) in Kenya

Consumer preference, market structure, conduct and performance

Market margins

Spatial factors affecting marketing behaviour and performance

Regression, principal component and clustering of milk quality indicators & profit parameters

slide15

Highlights of Results of Risk Characterisation

Percent of Households Buying Raw and Pasteurised Milk in Kenya

100

Raw

80

Pasteurised

% hh

80

93

78

60

40

34

29

20

5

0

Nairobi

Nakuru urban

Nakuru rural

slide16

Raw milk preferred due to its low price

Milk prices (1999)

Mean Price (KSh/Litre

Area

Raw milk

Pasteurised milk

Nairobi

31.5

40.0

Nakuru urban

25.3

41.0

Nakuru rural

18.4

41.0

Lower prices for raw milk in rural areas and as distance

·

from Nairobi increases

slide17

Quantity of pasteurised and raw milk purchased in Nairobi, by income groups

40

Raw

Pasteurised

30

Lts

20

10

0

<2500

2500-

5000-

10000-

20000-

>30000

4999

9999

19999

29999

Income Groups (KSh)

  • Higher quantities consumed as income increases
  • Price is not the only determinant of raw milk consumption. Tastes and preferences also count
slide18

Overview of lab. results

Adulteration

  • KEBS standards for specific gravity <1.026kg/l (added water) & >1.032kg/l (added solids) applied
          • Added Water % Added solids %
    • Consumer hh 5 6
  • Mkt agents 10 1
  • Adulteration highly variable by season & area
  • All traders had some adulterated milk
  • Tendency to add water during periods of low milk supply and high milk prices
slide19

Bacterial counts (cfu/ml):% bad/very bad(KEBS)

Raw: TC>2M, CC>50,000; Pasteurised: TC>30,000, CC>10

Total Bacteria

Coliform Bacteria

100

80

%

60

Samples

40

20

0

Farmer grp

Milk Bar

Shop/Kiosk

Mobile

Pasteurised-

Supermkts

Pasteurised-

Kiosks

Trader type

  • High counts in urban; low counts in rural areas
  • Lack of effective preservation e.g., cooling. Standards?
  • Significant deterioration before first transaction
slide20

Zoonoses

Brucella abortus antibodies %

30

20

Season 1

% hh/

Season 2

agents

10

0

MRT

ELISA

MRT

ELISA

Urban hh

Rural hh

Informal agents

Pasteurized milk

  • Bulking of raw milk  higher risk of brucellosis
  • 6% of rural hh consume home-made fermented milk
  • E. coli 0157:H7 2 out of 264 (<1%)
  • No M. bovis
slide21

% Health awareness of milk-borne hazards

100

100

100

96

80

65

60

%

40

44

20

23

0

Nairobi urb

Nakuru urb

Nakuru rural

Aware

Boiling

  • Nearly all hh boiled marketed milk prior to consumption but some naturally fermented milk also consumed
slide22

Antibiotics & antibacterials (Charm AIM-96 Test)

% above acceptable limits

(EU/Codex Alimentarius MRLs)

20

15

% hh /

10

agents

5

0

Milk bars

Past.

Coops

Shops /

Small

Urban hh

Rural hh

Kiosks

traders

  • All common antibiotics & antibacterials tested (penicillins, tetracyclines, sulphonamides, aminoglycosides & macrolides)
  • The major health risk found.
  • An average Kenyan consumer is exposed to milk with unacceptable residue levels twice every month!
slide23

Antibiotics & antibacterials (Charm AIM-96 Test)

Detection levels of Charm-AIMtest, MRLs and ADI

Drug Min. test EU/Codex Codex ADI

Range g/kgMRLs g/kg

Penicillin G 3-4 4 30 g/day

Oxytetracycline 150-300 100 30g/kg bwt

slide24

Factors associated with milk quality (OLS)

Total bacteriaColiformsSNF

Nairobi/Kiambu Strong (+++) Strong (+++)

Wet season Strong (+++) Medium(--) Medium (--)

SNF Medium(+++) N/A

Market Pathways (relative to Farm-coop)

Farm-Shops/kiosk Weak (+) Medium (--)

Coop-Shop/kiosk Weak (+)

Mobile trader-Milk bar Medium (--)

Milk handling

Milk preservation Weak (-)

Plastic container Medium (++)

Scooping vs pouring Medium (++)

Piped water Medium (++)

Other covariates

Time since collection Strong (+++)

Profit Margin/lt Strong (---)

slide25

Major risk factors (CCPs) in milk handling and critical points

  • Antibiotics & antibacterials

Major risk that heat treatment cannot address

Long term issue to be addressed mainly at farm level

  • Bacterial risks: Can be addressed by boiling/pasteurization
    • Total Bacteria

Wet season, Time before and after first transaction, Pathways from farms to shops/kiosks and milk bars

    • Coliform Bacteria
      • Lack of training, Scooping vs. pouring, Plastic containers
    • Zoonoses
      • Fermented milk is a potential source; No Bovine TB
slide26

Current licensing requirements do not promote good milk quality in Kenya

Summary of means of new variables & major clusters (principal component and cluster analysis)

Cluster Large scale Low High Long SCALE

Freq. /Experience quality margin Time

22-0.310.29-1.470.48Small: 44 l/d

158-0.25 -0.06 -0.19 0.06 Small: 126 l/d

120-0.37 -0.01 0.58 0.08 Small: 108 l/d

252.74-0.29 0.11 0.07 Large: 5,536 l/d

22 0.89 -0.36 -0.21 -0.03 Medium: 367 l/d

  • Small traders grouped together irrespective of licensing
  • Quality is not a problem for majority of small traders (relatively)
  • Training/experience helps to significantly improve milk quality
  • Can target specific groups and market pathways
slide27

Conclusions (risk assessment)

Consumers generally prefer whole raw milk but this fact is currently ignored by policy makers

More than 50% of samples exceed current hygiene standards

Nearly all consumers who purchase milk boil it before consumption

Antimicrobials are the major public health risk

Some risk from consumption of naturally fermented milk

Small traders use cheap and poor quality containers mainly due to policies that exclude them

slide28

Conclusions (risk management)

Policy is ineffective since the quality of traded but unlicensed milk does not differ significantly from licensed milk

Tradeoffs should consider actual risks, consumer preference and ‘safety’ as perceived by them

Appropriate public intervention should be through consumer education

Alternative approach of training and certification of market agents should result in better milk quality and better service to consumer preferences

Role for self-regulation?

slide29

Conclusions (risk communication)

Communicating the risk information has largely been productive with some positive changes in mindsets

Policy was/is important and policy-makers were therefore directly included in research and testing of interventions.

Private sector and NGOs also included

Stakeholders gathered in early 2001 mandated policy makers to form a committee to refine recommendations and oversee their implementation

slide30

Conclusions (risk communication cont’d)

Engage in public debate

Contribution to changing policy environment: Drafts of Policy & Bill explicitly recognize the predominance of small scale raw milk markets and are supportive

However, additional changes in legislation and institutions will be required to realize the desired changes in the new DDP

slide31

Acknowledgements

Co-investigators and Institutional Collaborators

University of Nairobi: S. Arimi, E. Kangethe

Graduate Students: A. Mwangi, G. Aboge, R. Koech,

E. Koroti

KEMRI: J. Odhiambo, E. Juma

Egerton University: Dept. of Dairy Techn. & Food Sci

ILRI MOSD staff + J. McDermott

MoARD H. Muriuki

DFID bilateral Support to SDP

ad