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TEFL-Group presentation - Speaking - Teaching Pronunciation & Speaking Erin 9610002M Gillian 9610004M PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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TEFL-Group presentation - Speaking - Teaching Pronunciation & Speaking Erin 9610002M Gillian 9610004M. Teaching Pronunciation 1) Foreword; EFL students’ problems 2) Introduction 3) The Segmental/Suprasegmental Debate 4) Setting Realistic Goals

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TEFL-Group presentation

-Speaking-

Teaching Pronunciation

& Speaking

Erin 9610002M

Gillian 9610004M


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  • Teaching Pronunciation

  • 1) Foreword; EFL students’ problems

  • 2) Introduction

  • 3) The Segmental/Suprasegmental Debate

  • 4) Setting Realistic Goals

  • 5) A Description of the Sound System

  • of English

  • 6) A Communicative Framework for Teaching

  • Pronunciation

  • 7) Some Teaching Techniques

  • 8) An Integrated Whole-Body Approach Teaching

  • Pronunciation

  • 9) Media and Technology

  • 10) Assessment


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  • Foreword

  • *Three goals of teaching pronunciation (Goodwin)

  • Enable our learners to understand

  • and be understood.

  • 2. Build their confidence in entering communicative situations

  • 3. Enable them to monitor their speech based on input from the environment


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For ESL Students’ Problems

1. “Teacher treats me as inferior or

academic disability because of

muttering English.”

2. “It’s hard for foreigners to understand

what I talked about because of my

Chinese sense and mispronunciation the

word.”

=> The major problem is “pronunciation”


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Introduction

*Pronunciation is the language feature.

*In the past – the articulation of

consonants and vowels & the discrimination

of minimal pairs.

*In recent years – suprasegmental features

(stress, intonation, and so on)

*should be taught as communicative interaction

along with other aspects


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The Segmental/Suprasegmental Debate

* Segmental: individual sounds

* Suprasegmental: stress, intonation…

* It’s not sufficient to focus on only

segmental or only suprasegmental

* to know which features should be taught and

which communicative situation should be used

are important issue


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Setting Realistic Goals

*Morley (1999)

1. Functional Intelligibility

2. Functional communicability

3. Increased Self-confidence

4. Speech Monitoring Abilities


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Setting Realistic Goals

1. Functional Intelligibility

★ Intelligibility:

The spoken English is presented with accent,

and is not confusing the listeners.

-> use “accent addition” rather than “accent

reduction” (not force learners to eliminate

their L1 accent to learn new second language)


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Setting Realistic Goals

2. Functional communicability

★ Learners have a ability to use spoken

English successfully in real communicative

situations.

★ To elicit students’ needs and interests

by giving survey

=> What the features do we need to

choose and which pronunciation

practices should be focus.


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Setting Realistic Goals

2. Functional communicability

*Dalton and Seidlhofer

1. Prominence

2.Topic management

3.Information status

4.Turn-taking

5.Social meanings and roles

6.Degree of involvement


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Setting Realistic Goals

3. Increased Self-confidence

★speak and be understood

★Design the real situation:

Control-> Free Production-> Provide

feedback


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Setting Realistic Goals

4. Speech Monitoring Abilities

★ Let learners pay attention to their own

speech and others’ speeches

-> learners hear and try to imitate.


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A Description of the Sound System of English

* Traditional (bottom-up) :

sound → syllables → phrases and

thought groups → extended discourse

* the steam of speech (top-down):

sound system is used naturally

=> both segmental and suprasegmental

features


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A Description of the Sound System of English

1. Thought groups :

* tone units, breath groups, and

intonation groups

* use pause to divide speech into

manageable chunk

-> easy to understand the main point of

speech

* Avoid pausing frequently


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A Description of the Sound

System of English

1. Thought groups :

*meaningful grammatical unit:

Ex:

I was speaking to him / on the phone yesterday. (O)

I was speaking to / him on the / phone yesterday. (×)


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A Description of the Sound

System of English

1. Thought groups :

*ambiguous phrases:

Ex:

1. Alfred said / the boss is stupid.

2. Alfred / said the boss / is stupid.

=>Who is stupid?


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A Description of the Sound

System of English

1. Thought groups :

*speaker’s speed:

1). faster speakers have less pauses


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A Description of the Sound

System of English

1. Thought groups :

*speaker’s speed:

2). more pauses:

★politician or clergy

-> emphasize on their idea and easy to process

ex: My fellow citizens/this/is/our/moment.

★frustrated parents say to a recalcitrant child

ex: Come/here/right/now!


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A Description of the Sound System of English

2. Prominence :

* nuclear stress, tonic syllables,

focus words, emphasis, and primary phrase

stress

* in thought group, an emphasized syllable is

used by the way of lengthening and moving

the pitch up or down

Ex: I was SPEAKing to him/ on the PHONE

yesterday.


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A Description of the Sound System of English

2. Prominence :

* depends on context but generally

representsinformation

1) new:

ex: (I got a postcard from Sue.)

She’s in MEXicao.


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A Description of the Sound System of English

2. Prominence :

* depends on content but generally

representsinformation

2) in contrast to some other previous

mentioned information:

ex: (Are you leaving at five thirty?)

No, SIX thirty.


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A Description of the Sound System of English

2. Prominence :

* depends on content but generally

representsinformation

3) or simply the most meaningful or

important item in the phrase:

ex: He’s studying ecoNOMics.


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A Description of the Sound System of English

2. Prominence :

* based on communicative context

ex: I am reading.

=>Which word should be focused?


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A Description of the Sound System of English

3. Intonation :

* the melodic line or pitch

pattern in thought group

* the pitch movement within intonation

contour occurs on the prominent

element

ex: Are you READy yet?

No, I need to call DAVE first.


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A Description of the Sound System of English

3. Intonation :

* regional and individual variation

of authentic speech

-> give “an” appropriate option about

generalized patterns of specific

contexts


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A Description of the Sound System of English

3. Intonation :

* It is dangerous to make one-to-one

associations between a given emotion

and an intonation contour.

=> sometimes intonation contour couldn’t

stand for the emotion exactly. (Word

choice, facial expression…)


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A Description of the Sound

System of English

4. Rhythm :

*stress-timed (including longer

<stressed> and shorter <unstressed>

syllables): occurring at regular intervals

. . .

ex: She would’ve liked to have gone to the movie.

<-> syllable-timed:

each syllable has the same timing and length.


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A Description of the Sound

System of English

4. Rhythm :

* Which words should be stressed

and which unstressed?

-> ★content words (more meaning, nouns, main

verbs, adjectives, and some adverbs) => O

★function words (articles, pronouns,

auxiliary verbs, and prepositions) => ×


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A Description of the Sound

System of English

4. Rhythm :

* Rhythm v. s. Prominence

-> ★Rhythm : “ALL” the syllables (content words)

that receive stress in a thought group

★Prominence : “One” emphasized syllable in a

thought group

. . .

ex: She attends the University of MARyland.


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A Description of the Sound

System of English

4. Rhythm :

* Traditional analytical exercises :

To let students understand the rhythm

BUT: For speakers, there is no time to do it

during the conversation


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A Description of the Sound

System of English

4. Rhythm :

*Chelas Flores (1998):

1) apart from words and meaning

2) use written (on the board)

★dots (short syllables)

★dashes (long syllables)

3) pattern orally

★ti (unstressed syllables)

★TA (stressed syllables)

★ TAA (prominent element)


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A Description of the Sound

System of English

4. Rhythm :

*Chelas Flores (1998):

Instruction:

1) teacher pronounce some patterns let

students point out on the board

=> draw learners’ attention (internalized)

2) use the actual phrases to let students

distinguish

=> practice meaningful phrases


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A Description of the Sound System of English

5. Reduced Speech :

*to de-emphasize other unimportant

syllables in a thought group

*Two ways to reduce speech:

1) to shorten unstressed syllables

2) to relax the mouth (reduces vowels)

=> let learners speak quickly


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A Description of the Sound System of English

5. Reduced Speech :

* The way of reduced vowels---

schwa / /=> relax your jaw and lip.

* citation form (full, strong, or stressed )

& reduced form (unstressed or weak)

Ex: citation form reduced form

Has He has? /h z/ What has he done?

/ z/


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A Description of the Sound System of English

6. Linking :

*adjustmentspeakers make between

words in connected speech

ex: Why don’t you find out?

fine doubt

-> link the syllables together in order to

pronounce it easily


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A Description of the Sound System of English

5. Linking :

*plurals, verb form and tense,

possessive (to be conveyed by endings)

ex: She changed-it. (1)

change-dit. (2)

-> (2) is easier to pronounce than (1) &

(2) is clear to listeners


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A Description of the Sound System of English

6. Linking :

*plurals, verb form and tense,

possessive (to be conveyed by endings)

ex: They live in Miami. (Present)

They live-din Miami. (Past)

-> focus on linked sound


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A Description of the Sound System of English

7. Consonants :

*Three dimensions

1) Place of articulation:

Where the sound is made?

2) Manner of articulation

How the sound is made?

3) Voicing

Whether the vocal cords are vibrating

or not


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A Description of the Sound System of English

7. Consonants :

* decide whether phonetic

symbols are necessary

-> some letters are the same as the

phonetic representation

BUT: certain sounds are not.

ex: thumb /θ/, shop / /, and so on


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A Description of the Sound System of English

7. Consonants :

*various articulation of a consonant

are based on its environment

ex: p1ap2er

->p1 is aspiration (puff of air),

p2 is not.


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A Description of the Sound System of English

7. Consonants :

*Clustering: a segment is deleted

and changed

ex: strengths, texts, facts, and handbag

-> learners should know how consonant

cluster and there are acceptable cluster

reduction.


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A Description of the Sound System of English

7. Consonants :

*difficulty with sounds that don’t exist

in learners’ L1

ex: th, l ,and r sounds

-> focus on sounds in context


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A Description of the Sound System of English

8. Vowels :

* the syllable core

* constitute a syllable or a word

ex: eye

* articulation is with smooth airflow


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A Description of the Sound System of English

8. Vowels :

* There are four dimensions

1) tongue position (front/central/back)

2) tongue and jaw height (high/mid/low)

3) degree of lip rounding (spread/round)

4) the relative tension of the muscles

(tense/lax)


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A Description of the Sound System of English

8. Vowels :

* Some challenges in teaching

1) English has more vowels than others.

2) a lot of variation in vowels between

dialects

ex: doll and ball -> same pronunciation

3) glide movement : eye (diphthong)

4) most vowels can be spelled in many

different ways ex: /i/-> ee or ea


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A Description of the Sound System of English

8. Vowels :

* Some challenges in teaching

5) vowels sounds are usually reduced in

unstressed syllables.

ex: mo1to2r

-> o1 is stressed

o2 is unstressed (tore=>ter)

=> use the relaxing of the articulators to

reduce or weaken the vowel


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A Description of the Sound System of English

8. Vowels :

* Instruction

1) show each vowel with key word

(and numbers)

2) repeat key words until remember

3) unnecessary to introduce any phonetic

-> easier to refer the key or the number

rather than vowels


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A Description of the Sound System of English

9. Word stress :

*There are primary stress(.),

secondary stress(.) and almost no

stress(.) in a word

ex: . . .. .

com mun i ca tion


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A Description of the Sound System of English

9. Word stress :

*three factors

1) historical origin of a word

2) the part of speech

3) affixation


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A Description of the Sound

System of English

9. Word stress :

* In general terms

1)the root or base of a word, less on prefix

ex: beLIEVE, preDICT, comPLAINT

2)compound nouns : primary stress on the

first, secondary stress on the second

ex: BUS stop, AIRplane


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A Description of the Sound

System of English

9. Word stress :

* In general terms

3) suffixes:

a) Have no effect on stress

ex: BEAUty-> BEAUtiful

b) Take the primary stress themselves

ex: balLOON

c) Cause the stress pattern in the stem to

shift to a different syllable

ex: PERiod-> periODic


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A Communicative Framework

for Teaching Pronunciation

1) Description and Analysis

*use the chart (vowels, consonant,

organ of speech)

*present the rules inductively or deductively

ex: present –ed or provide multiple examples

and let learners figure out the rules


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A Communicative Framework

for Teaching Pronunciation

2) Listening Discrimination

*contextualized minimal pair

discrimination exercise

ex:

a. He wants to buy my boat. Will you sell it?

b. He wants to buy my vote. That’s against the law!

-> teacher say “a” or “b”, and listener has to

response with the appropriate answer.


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A Communicative Framework

for Teaching Pronunciation

2) Listening Discrimination

*falling or rising intonation

ex: Rising Falling

You can’t ↗ ↘

-> let listeners choose which intonation they

hear


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A Communicative Framework

for Teaching Pronunciation

2) Listening Discrimination

*Using a transcript with a short

listening passage -> learners mark and

circle

a) teacher just focus on one or two

features at a time

b) focus listener’s attention


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A Communicative Framework

for Teaching Pronunciation

3) Controlled Practice

*learner’s attention focus on form

*poems, rhymes, dialogues, dramatic

monologues are used .

*Combine contextualized minimal pair

activities


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A Communicative Framework

for Teaching Pronunciation

4) Guided Practice

*learner’s attention focus on meaning,

grammar, communicative intent and

pronunciation.

*new cognitive task

-> maintain control of the pronunciation target


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A Communicative Framework

for Teaching Pronunciation

5) Communicative Practice

*activities should be balanced

between form and meaning (role play,

debates…)

*the attention should focus on one or two

features at a time

*Instruction: set up the objective

ex: liking -> feedback


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Some Teaching Techniques

1). Contextualized Minimal Pair Practice :

* contextualized sentences and

rejoinder, not just isolated words

ex1:

This pen leaks. Then, don’t write with it.

This pan leaks. Then, don’t cook with it.


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Some Teaching Techniques

2). Cartoons and Drawings :

* to give hints for production

* to use humorous cartoons story to

elicit short plays (rhythm and role play)

* to let learners read and analyze


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Some Teaching Techniques

3). Gadgets and Props :

*to help learners understand some

features.

*use kazoos to highlight intonation

*use Cuisenaire rods to illustrate

rhythm


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Some Teaching Techniques

4). Rhymes, Poetry, and Jokes :

*let learners learn a strong beat

*let learners learn pronunciation and

spelling at the same time

*to illustrate and practice some

features


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Some Teaching Techniques

5). Drama :

*various components of communicative

competence can be practiced

=> particularly effective


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Some Teaching Techniques

5). Drama :

* Stern(1980):

★ let pairs receive the different script

★ provide dramatic reading

★ teacher help learners to model the

line, repeat, and draw attention

★ videotaped pairs’ performing the

scene.


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Some Teaching Techniques

6). Kinesthetic Activities :

*use basic hand gestures (fingers)

* The Wizard of Oz :

learners use movement to repeat

(stand up & take a step)=> internalized

* Acton (1984): mirroring (imitate)

=> helping fossilized learners


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An Integrated Whole-Body Approach to Teaching Pronunciation

*combine spoken fluency approach

and use of drama => spoken interaction

* using short videotaped interactions


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An Integrated Whole-Body Approach to Teaching Pronunciation

*Instruction (using videotaped)

1) analyze the video (repeat listening)

2) work in pairs to rehearse the

interaction

3) learners review and fill in self-analysis

sheet (teacher evaluate )

4) learners perform similar interaction

(see if learners can transfer what they’ve

learned)


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Media and Technology

1) Audio

★the basic way to record learners’

sound or speech

=> review, find out errors & give feedback


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Media and Technology

2) Video

★contain the author teaching

pronunciation lessons or actors

performing a scene with experience


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Media and Technology

2) Video

★ choose video type based on learners’

background and level

★ the wonderful tool for recording

=> record whole performance

★ let learners operate the video


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Media and Technology

3) Computer Software

★ a lot of functions

★ visual feedback is not necessary

=> visual representation

★ record learners’ voice

★ some programs need cost


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Media and Technology

4) Internet

★ provide a continually expanding

websites

★ voice-encoding technology

=>decrease the need for exchanging tapes

★ Need more plug-ins in order to connect

more websites (sound card, headphones,

speakers and a microphone)


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Assessment

1. Diagnostic Evaluation:

*use passages and free speech sample

*The steps

1) read the passages which contain

features and sounds

2) elicit learners by a topic, questions,

and an illustration

3) learners have time to prepare for

answering, and teachers evaluate by

oral interview recording


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Assessment

2. Ongoing Feedback:

*gives learners’ progress & points out

where need to improve.

*There are three major ways

1) Self-Monitoring:

★ guide learners to self-correct by

mentioning error silently.


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Assessment

2. Ongoing Feedback:

*There are three major ways

1) Self-Monitoring:

a) Gestures

b) Pronunciation correction signs

c) Charts

★ record students’ speech (with self-

analysis sheet) => effective


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Assessment

2. Ongoing Feedback:

*There are three major ways

2) Peer Feedback:

★in minimal pair activity:

four members rather than two members

=> more reliable and convinced

★ in role play:

two members in a group are enough

=>unnecessary to share the pronunciation

difficulty


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Assessment

2. Ongoing Feedback:

*There are three major ways

3) Teacher Feedback:

★gestures, pronunciation correction

signs

★audiocassettes or computers sound

files


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  • Assessment

  • 2. Ongoing Feedback:

  • *There are three major ways

  • 3) Teacher Feedback:

  • ★Three types of errors should be corrected

    • breakdown in communication

    • pattern

    • pronunciation points


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Assessment

3. Classroom Achievement Tests:

*evaluate learners’ progress

=> more focus than diagnostic

assessment

* similar with classroom teaching tasks

=> reduce the effect of unfamiliar format

on learner performance


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Assessment

3. Classroom Achievement Tests:

*oral performance should be

recorded

=> easier for teachers to evaluate and

learners to review and revise


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  • Conclusion

  • * The goalsof teaching pronunciation:

    • to understand and be understood.

  • 2. Build their confidence in entering

  • communicative situations

  • 3. to monitor their speech based on input

  • from the environment

  • => learners can communicate smoothly


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    Teaching Oral Skills

    • Introduction

    • Oral Skills Class

    • Speaking Activities

    • The Roles of the Teacher

    • Teaching Oral Skills in an EFL Context

    • Assessment

    • Speaking lesson sequences


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    Introduction

    • To start a fluent speech contains:

      1. Reduce form

      contractions, vowel reduction, and elision

      2. Slang

      very informal words, phrases, etc commonly used in speech, esp. between people form the same social group


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    Introduction

    • To start a fluent speech contains:

      3. Idioms

      phrase or sentence whose meaning is not clear form the meaning of its individual words and which must be learnt as whole unit


    Slide85 l.jpg

    1.Reduced Forms

    Be verbs

    I’m home. You’re right.

    He’snot here. She’s late.

    We’re not going. They’re coming.

    Have/had p.p.

    I’ve finished the homework.

    They’d gone to the zoo.

    Auxiliaries

    I’ll see you next week.

    You should’ve called.


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    2.Slang

    • He’s such a dork.

    • Let’s hit the road.

    • Give me a shout.

    • I’ll ask for Mary’s hand.

    • My car is a lemon.

    • Keep the ball rolling.

    • Remember to stop and smell the roses.

    • His folks will be in town this weekend.


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    Hyme’s theory of communicative competence proposes

    • Grammatical competence

      including rules of phonology, orthography, vocabulary, word formation, and sentence formation


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    Hyme’s theory of communicative competence proposes

    • Sociolinguistic competence

      rules for the expression and understanding of appropriate social meanings and grammatical forms in different context


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    Hyme’s theory of communicative competence proposes

    • Discourse competence

      rules of both cohesion- how sentence elements are tied together via reference, repetition, synonymy, etc-and coherence-how texts are constructed


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    Hyme’s theory of communicative competence proposes

    • Strategic competence

      a repertoire of compensatory strategies that help with variety of communication difficulties


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    In the past, teachers only focus on Grammatical competence

    • Fluency

      Speech without strain or inappropriate slowness or undue hesitation


    In the past teachers only focus on grammatical competence92 l.jpg

    In the past, teachers only focus on Grammatical competence

    • Natural language use

      Consistent with the aims of many ESL classrooms today where the negotiation of meaning is major goal


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    Oral Skills Class

    • Low level adults

      The teacher may need to find L1 speakers to help students to get information on student experience, educational background, and needs


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    Oral Skills Class

    • Nonacademic adults

      Focus in survival English and

      basic communication functions based on a strong structural component


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    Oral Skills Class

    • Academic leaner

      Need to practice with different sorts of activities. Academic ESL students need most is extensive authentic practice in class participation


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    Speaking Activities

    1.Disscussion

    2.Speeches

    3.Role plays

    4.Conversation

    5.Audiotaped oral dialogue journals

    6.Othe accuracy-based activities


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    1.Discussion

    1.Intorduce a topic

    there should be guidance

    beforehand.

    2.Grouping or pairing

    however, there is no one" right way”.


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    1. Discussion

    3.Responsibility

    each student should have a

    specific responsibility.

    4.Disscussion

    students need to clear about what, why and what outcome.


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    For example

    • The invigilator should ignore it.

    • She should give the student a sign to show that she’s seen (so that the student will stop)

    • She should call the family and tell them the student was cheating.

    • She should inform the examining board so that the student will not be able to take that exam again.


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    2. Debate

    • Topic

      Set a topic that is controversial

    • Divide into Groups

      Random selection (e.g. draw lots)


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    2. Debate

    • Pros and cons

      Random selection (e.g. draw lots)

    • Vote

      Each students have one chance to vote


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    For example

    1. Topic :

    Should students get expel when they are caught cheating?

    2. Divide into Groups:

    3. Pros and cons:

    4. Vote:

    Students should not get expel when they are caught cheating.


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    3. Speeches

    • Prepared speech

      Topic for speeches will vary depending on the level of the student ,or the teacher can provide the structure of speech –its rhetorical genre (narration, description, etc.)

      EX: asking students to “tell us about an unforgettable experience you had”


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    3. Speeches

    • Impromptu speech

      Give students more actual practice with speaking the language, but also focuses on them to think, and speak without a note or something


    Prepared speech prepared talk l.jpg

    *Prepared speech (prepared talk)

    • Peer evaluation

    • Self- evaluation

    • All- evaluation

      Categories of performance:

    • Delivery

    • interaction/ rapport with audience

    • content and organization

    • language skills


    Impromptu speech l.jpg

    *Impromptu speech

    • Topic

      each learner is assigned a topic he or she

      is likely to know little about. Once students understand the task and are familiar with the markers, they are given a strip of paper with topic just before being asked to speak

      Ex:

      in university academic English classes, topics such asfinding a derivative in mathematics…with nonacademic learners, describing how the camera works…


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    *Impromptu speech

    • Hesitation markers-

      um, eh, well ,sort of, you know, and like

      (not be silent, and give as little actual information as possible)

    • Pronunciation and intonation

      After going over a list of hesitation markers and letting students practice


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    4. Role Plays

    • Reality of function:

      The students must not think of themselves as students, but as real participants in the situation.

    • A simulated environment:

      the teacher says that the classroom is an airport check-in area, for example.


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    4. Role Plays

    • Structure:

      Students must see how the

      activity is constructed and they must be given the necessary information to carry out the simulation effectively.


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    For example

    “Knife in school” :

    A boy has brought a large hunting knife to school. And the boy, his parents, the head teacher, and class teacher have a meeting to decide what must be done about it.


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    5. Conversation

    *Unplanned conversation

    Learners be forehead to come up

    few questions.

    *Transcript

    There is no need to require a detail transcript.

    *Interview

    Conversational issues that interests in student.


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    6. Audiotaped Oral Dialogue Journals

    *The oral dialogue journal

    are one format where practice with fluency and attention to accuracy can be accomplish at the same time. And be sure to remind students that speak extemporaneously.


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    6. Audiotaped Oral Dialogue Journals

    Ex:

    teacher starts the activity on the tape by giving some directions for assignment and suggesting topic.

    e.g.Tell me about your first day in the United States.

    (Not necessary to be perfect)


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    6. Audiotaped Oral Dialogue Journals

    * After returning the tapes to students

    It’s nice to make some comments about the context

    It’s good for teacher to response the individual feedback and instruction on the pronunciation or grammar problems


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    6. Audiotaped Oral Dialogue Journals

    * After returning the tapes to students

    • In small class:

      Not realistic for teacher on regular basis

    • In large class:

      It makes this unfeasible


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    Solution:

    • The tapes can be turned on rotating basis and provide feedback

    • Students can switch tapes with each other and provide feedback

      (in small class can be useful)

    • Give guidance from instructor

      (Lucas-Uygun) An activity-“Secret Audio Pals”-

      *students exchange their tapes anonymously for several weeks and try to guess who they are.


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    7.Other Accuracy-Based Activity

    • Drills

      using the particular structure may prove useful as the first step towards more communicative output

    • For example (Wong) recommends an activity called ”Two-Minute Conversation” -

      “If I were…” in which students become acquainted with each other by taking identity.

      “If I were (a/an)_____, I would be (a/an)_____, because…”

      low level students would probably benefit form some instruction.


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    7.Other Accuracy-Based Activity

    • Structured interview

      *in which students talk to their classmate by using interview form, using of wh-and /or yes/no questions.

    • For example

      “finding someone who…” here there are given sheet of habits or characteristics.

      *celebrity interview

      ★During the accuracy-based activity, errors can be ignored. Unless, the errors which impede communication.


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    The Roles of the Teacher

    * Prompter: help, support, force some

    frustrated learners to stop their

    sense of frustration

    * Participant: to be good animators and

    a part of activities in order to make

    the process of activity to be smoothly

    * Feedback Provider: based on the

    particular situation


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    Teaching Oral Skills in an EFL Context

    *Problems:

    • Students speak same L1 and English is not used outside the classroom.

    • Prohibited L1.

    • Curriculum does not stress speaking skills.

    • Teachers are not native speakers.


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    Teaching Oral Skills in an EFL Context

    • Solutions (suggestions):

    • Authentic, motivating, varied activities.

    • Assign out-of-class learning activities.

    • Invite native English speaker to the class.


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    Assessment

    *Evaluation of classroom performance

    *The input given to students, whether it be visual, aural, or interactive.

    *Oral assessment should be reported using terms that are clearly defined for abs understandable to students.


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    Speaking lesson sequences

    In the following examples the speaking activity is specified, together with its particular focus.


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    Example 1: Expert Activity: communication game Focus: controlled language processing Age: any Level: elementary and above

    Question: How do fish breath?

    Expert1:The

    Expert2: answer

    Expert3: to

    Expert4: this

    Expert1: question

    Expert2: is

    Expert3: an

    Expert4: answer

    Expert1: that …

    etc.


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    Example 2: FilmsActivity: questionnaireFocus: lexis and grammar, interacting with others Age: young adults and above Level: lower intermediate and above

    Column:


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    Example 3: Whose line is it anyway?Activity: improvisation gameFocus: language processing, interacting with othersAge: upper intermediate and above Level: young adult and above

    • Who, where, and what.

    • Two students in the pair.

    • Rest of the class to suggest their occupations.

    • Win point: how well they mange.

    • Teacher: give cards that describe how they speak. (e.g. polite, angrily, ingratiatingly)


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    Example 4: Rooms in a houseActivity: discussionFocus: interacting with othersAge: adults Level: upper intermediate

    • A family who are going to move into a house.

    • Decide which bedroom would be suitable for each member of the family.


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    Example 5: Travel agentActivity: role-playFocus: interacting with others, information processingAge: any Level: intermediate and above

    A customer

    You want:

    • A double room

    • To go to a hotel in Miami for 7 nights

      (You can spend up to ﹩1400 on a hotel)

    • To be as near as possible as the city centre

    • To go to a hotel with a good discotheque

    • A children’s swimming pool for your small son

    • Someone to be available to look after your son at the hotel

    • The hotel to serve good food

    • a comfortable room (with good view)


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    B Travel agent

    Study the following information carefully so that you can answer A (the customer)

    Note: Various feature (e.g. view, discos, restaurant, etc.) have been given different “smile” ratings to indicate quality.

    = excellent, = very good, and = good

    As an example we can say that you get a better view if you’re staying at the Paradison than you do if you are staying at the Regency Park.


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    • Developing Children’s Listening and Speaking in ESL

    • 1) Introduction

    • 2) How Children Differ From Adults As

    • Language Learners

    • 3) How ESL Children Approach Oral

    • Language

    • 4) Techniques and Resources


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    Introduction

    • Child second language learners could differ from adults. Consider these anecdotes:

      *1.Repeating: children can sing the same song again and again, and they are willing to do some movements with the song.

    • For example: a group of 7 children sing “I’m a little teapot” with their one arm as the spout of the teapot. Singing and doing like a teapot. And then the group stars again.


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    Introduction

    * 2.speaking native language (feel insecure): in ESL class, children may refuse to talk in English and use their native language. The reason of this problem, maybe because she/he is insecure of this environment.

    For example: a girl who already in school for six months and decline to speak in English; however she would like to talk to her/his classmates.


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    Introduction

    *3. Hard to be quite (control): teacher is hard to control the classbecause student's attention span.

    For example: teacher prepare a lot of activities to instruct to students; however students’ attention maybe only last five minutes. Therefore each games waste lots of time.


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    How children differ from adults as language learners

    .


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    How children differ from adults as language learners

    • Activities need to be child centered and communication should be authentic:

      *something or games that interest students and they want to listen and speaking in English, not only teacher wants them to do.

      Many authors (Enright 1991; Enright and Rigg 1986; Genese 1994; Phillips 1993; Rigg and Allen 1989; McKeon and Samway 1993; Scott and Ytreberg 1990; Vale 1995) suggest that teacher to teach ESL holistically and to focus on the whole child. Several themes repeatedly come up:


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    How children differ from adults as language learners

    • Six-year-olds->Provide a rich context, including movement, the senses, objects and pictures, and a variety o activities.

      * For example, children are learning term of community occupation, they wear hats or customs to follow the direction of teacher. Teachers accommodate the kinesthetic and visual learning styles favored by most children (Keefe 1979)


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    How children differ from adults as language learners

    • Seven-year-olds->teach ESL holistically, integrating the four skills.

      * For example,

      *listening- teacher can provide the story to student to listen.

      *speaking- students can repeat a refrain in the story, discuss each character in the story.

      *reading and writing- students label cards with the names of the characters and read aloud a version of the story written on the word cards and sentence strips. And then they can write a little book of their own.


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    How children differ from adults as language learners

    • Eight-year-olds->focus on meaning, not correctness.

      * For example,groups decide the theme and make poster and present a argument for their theme. Children speak, write, listen, or draw according to their ability. The teacher does not correct errors.


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    How children differ from adults as language learners

    • Eight-year-olds->Treat language as a tool for children to use for their own social and academic ends.

      * For example, children enjoy being part of a group as they sing and chant the same pieces in ESL class. Teacher should allow them to work with friends in the class.


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    How children differ from adults as language learners

    • Eleven-year-olds->Treat learners appropriately in light of their age and interest.

      * For example, at the end of an ESL content unit on some topic (e.g. volcanoes), students play some games using vocabulary and pictures from the unit.


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    How children differ from adults as language learners

    • Eleven-year-olds->Use language for authentic communication not as an object of analysis.

      * For example, students do not know the term modal verb, but enjoy making up role plays in which characters are polite to each other.


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    How children differ from adults as language learners

    • Twelve-year-olds->Focus on collaboration and social development.

    • For example, a group of students compare maps of north of the America for example that were drawn in different centuries. They discuss and make comparison. They have to due a report or prepare the oral presentation.

    • Each students has to have a role in this group.


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    How children differ from adults as language learners

    • Advanced beginners-> Focus on the value of the activity, not the value of the language.

      * For example, students each receive a potato. And they have to name a name for their potato, prepare a oral introduction and also make a poster if their potato get lost.


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    How ESL Children Approach

    Oral Language

    * Children enjoy rhythmic and

    repetitive language

    * with less awareness

    => children are more comfortable to

    talk and as the part of role play


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    Techniques and Resources

    1. Using Songs, Poems, and Chants:

    * Children like songs, poems, and

    chants

    (add some gestures, body movement…)

    * “Mother Goose” is suggested poem

    * The principle of choosing poem:

    to pick ones that you like


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    Techniques and Resources

    1. Using Songs, Poems, and Chants:

    * Chants have a strong and catchy

    rhythm <-> poem

    * “You Did It Again”

    => two voices, and express simple past

    forms of irregular verbs


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    Techniques and Resources

    1. Using Songs, Poems, and Chants:

    *another: children’s folklore

    -> the value should fit with your

    own and every student

    ex: rebellion against authority, put-downs

    of various ethnic groups, and joking

    about body parts and sexuality (×)


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    Techniques and Resources

    1. Using Songs, Poems, and Chants:

    * The advantages of using chants

    1. vocabulary :

    hear pronunciation-> practice the sound

    2. rhythm, intonation, and stress :

    English chants exaggerate each pattern


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    Techniques and Resources

    1. Using Songs, Poems, and Chants:

    * The advantages of using chants

    3. grammar structure :

    hear and produce the same parts

    4. culture :

    take “You Did It Again” example---

    pick up the undesirability of breaking or

    learn to apologize


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    Techniques and Resources

    1. Using Songs, Poems, and Chants:

    * Different learners’ level:

    ★ beginners : listen

    1. introduce vocabulary and context clearly

    2. provide visuals and objects

    3. have other students role-play the chant

    => enjoy the rhythm of the language and

    being a part of the large group


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    Techniques and Resources

    1. Using Songs, Poems, and Chants:

    * Different learners’ level:

    ★ Intermediate and Advanced :

    participate

    1. most learners take part in the chanting

    and singing, so memorizing the text

    2. choose only to listen -> can benifit


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    Techniques and Resources

    1. Using Songs, Poems, and Chants:

    * Consideration of choosing song:

    1. choose what you like : feeling

    2. fit with your learners or based on

    course or topic

    3. language of a song seems archaic

    => try to modernize

    4. choose the song with movement


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    Techniques and Resources

    1. Using Songs, Poems, and Chants:

    * The way of teaching:

    1. start with vocabulary and context

    2. listening

    3. repeating independent recitation

    4. repeating singing

    => similar with audiolingual method


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    Techniques and Resources

    1. Using Songs, Poems, and Chants:

    * The step of teaching:

    1. use pictures and objects to familiarize

    with vocabulary and content

    2. let learners listen: reciting poem or

    chant, or sing or playing the tape

    3. recite (sing, play) a line at a time, and

    learner repeat after you


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    Techniques and Resources

    1. Using Songs, Poems, and Chants:

    * The step of teaching:

    4. recite the whole text with the class

    5. the context has two parts: you take

    one, and learners take the other

    6. divide learners into two groups: let

    them perform


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    Techniques and Resources

    1. Using Songs, Poems, and Chants:

    * The step of teaching:

    7. practice the chants, songs, or poems

    about five minutes a day

    8. use costumes and props

    9. have the class present the songs,

    poems or chants to other children


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    Techniques and Resources

    2. Dramatic Activities:

    * using drama more easier to teach a

    lesson

    * beneficial for children no matter have

    big or small part in the production

    * children are more willing to participate

    drama activities than adults


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    Techniques and Resources

    2. Dramatic Activities:

    * role play:

    1. read or tell the story in class

    2. assign learners parts

    3. let children act the role


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    Techniques and Resources

    2. Dramatic Activities:

    * instruction of using any kind of

    stories or chants:

    1. read original story

    2. read the script aloud

    3. assign each learn to each part

    4. let learn make costume and props

    5. ask learners make up skits by

    themselves


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    Techniques and Resources3. Storytelling

    • Stories are a powerful means of language teaching. A skillful teacher can use stories to develop “more efficient listening , more fluent speaking and the ability to read and write easily and competently” (Garvie 1990)

    • Teacher can tell the story while students move puppets or dolls, or teacher also can tell a version of a familiar story such as “Billy Goats Gruff” by a different author and illustrator.

    • Students can listen to the story using tape-recorded or earphone individually or together several times, and then they can retell it or write a script for the story.


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    Techniques and ResourcesStory Activities

    • For example 1, Recite:

      teacher chooses a brief story and rewrites it and each student has a sentence to memorize. Students decide how to line up their sentences in order and then recite the story again.

      *Choose story->students memorize->decide to make sentence in order->recite


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    teacher

    For example 2, Retell:

    Students in

    The hall

    Students in

    the classroom

    For example 3,Chain story:

    One student begin a story and others take turns adding sentences, whether orally or in writing.


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    Techniques and Resources4. Gesture and Movement

    • Children need to move around more than adults do.

      *teacher can combine gesture and movement with songs , poem or chant, with drama, and with stories.

      *For example, teacher can say yes by raising one hand and no by looking down at the floor.

      *With young children, teacher can break up 5~10mins for 1~2mins of physical exercise or dancing.


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    Techniques and Resources5. Total Physical Response (TPR)

    • The best known ESL approach involving movement is TPR (Asher 1969).

    • Teacher commands students to do some movement or models them. Gradually students are able to carry out a variety of commands.

    • Students in the process acquire receptive language, especially vocabulary and grammar.


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    A lesson might start like this:

    • Teacher: Stand up. (pauses, then stands up)

      Touch your shoulder. (pauses, then stands up) Sit down. (pauses, then sits down) Stand up. (continues modeling)

      *Later, students understand and follow the teacher’s commands.


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    A lesson might start like this:

    • Teacher: Touch your head.

    • Max, Dennis, Eric : (Touch heads)

    • Most other students: (follow others and touch heads)

    • Teacher: Good! Great job, Max, Dennis, Eric.


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    Techniques and Resources5. Total Physical Response (TPR)

    • TPR fits with in Natural Approach (Krashen and Terrell 1983). Grammar is not overtly taught, the focus is on comprehension, and input is supposed to be comprehensible.

      *e.g. students study the water cycle, commands such as Touch/Point to /pick up the Clouds/River/Raindrop can be carried out using pictures or word cards.


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    Techniques and Resources5. Total Physical Response (TPR)

    * e.g.A series of commands, teacher can ask students to carry out a simple process: making a terrarium in which water will evaporate and condense: Take the glass terrarium. Put water in the pool. Spray water on the sides. Put plastic wrap on the top. Put the terrarium by the window.


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    Total Physical Response (TPR)Storytelling

    • TPR Storytelling (Ray and Seely 1998; Seely ans Romiji 1998) is a method of second or foreign language teaching that includes action, pantomime and other techniques.

      * e.g. Teacher teach vocabulary of the story through the gesture. (Each word has its own gesture , perhaps a gesture that teacher invents or sign in American Sign Language.) Students practice in pairs, and then teacher tell mini-story to students with gestures. A month later, teacher will tell another mini-story which is related to before, students will understand better because the previous stories and gestures.


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    Total Physical Response (TPR)Storytelling

    • Later students can tell story by themselves while others act it out.

    • Next step, teacher tells a main story which students later retell and revise.

    • Last, students create their own stories.

      *In the second, or third year, grammar is taught by telling the stories from another point of view. Requiring the learner to change tenses, pronouns, and so on.


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    Techniques and Resources6. Teaching Grammar

    • In EFL situation, maybe class is the only place where students speak English. Teacher how to respond the students’ oral grammatical errors.

    • In Unties States, where many teachers favor the Natural Approach, errors are often seen as indicator of children’s knowledge, but not necessary to correct.


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    Errors

    • Ignore the errors (in grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation)

    • Make a mental note

    • Rephrase the sentence

    • Rephrase and expand

    • Present a lesson to a group or the whole class later on


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    For example

    * Rephrase and expand ->

    • Students: teacher, Iseed two mouses in the night market yesterday.

    • Teacher: oh, really? You saw two mice in night market yesterday. You came with your parents?


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    Thank you for your attention!


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