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Revolutionizing Food Production in Cuba. State Support (Institutions). Founded 1987 NGO ACTAF’s Goal:. ACTAF Conference VI Encuentro de Agricultura Orgánica y Sostenible. ACTAF’s Soil Institute. Produces:

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Revolutionizing Food Production in Cuba

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Revolutionizing food production in cuba
Revolutionizing Food Production in Cuba

State Support

(Institutions)


Revolutionizing food production in cuba


Actaf conference vi encuentro de agricultura org nica y sostenible
ACTAF ConferenceVI Encuentro de Agricultura Orgánica y Sostenible


Actaf s soil institute
ACTAF’s Soil Institute

  • Produces:

    • Rhizobium & Azospirillum&Azobacter —bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen; reduce use of N fertilizer 25-100%

    • Azotofos (free-living)—enhances availability of phosphorus;

      reduces N fertilizer 50%

    • Fosforina (microbial biofertilizer)—makes phosphorus available to plants, replaces 50-75% of phosphorus fertilizer & 25% of nitrogen fertilizer

    • Mycorrhizal fungi extend plant roots


Instituto de investigaciones de sanidad vegetal ministerio de la agricultura inisav
Instituto de Investigaciones de Sanidad Vegetal, Ministerio de la Agricultura(INISAV)

  • Founded 1977


Beneficial predators
Beneficial Predators

  • Lacewing eggs

    • Are planted in a

      tray with maize

      for 45 days


Revolutionizing food production in cuba


Integrated pest management ipm began 1982
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) – Began 1982

  • Cuba has 67 plant protection stations, 2254 professionals, 3051 technicians

  • 283 CREEs – Entomophage and Entomopathogen Reproduction Centers


Revolutionizing food production in cuba

*

  • Entomophagous organisms

    • Wasps (Trichogramma, Tetrastichus)

    • Flies (Lixophaga, Eucelatoria)

  • Entomopathogens

    • Bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis)

    • Fungi (Beauveria bassiana, Verticillium lecanii)

Nematodes


Ipm vs apm
IPM vs. APM

  • IPM: Integrated pest management

    • Response to Green Revolution Pesticide Treadmill (also eliminated beneficial pests)

    • Input substitution – corrective approach

  • APM: Agroecological pest management

    • Focus on pest prevention

    • Genetic & species diversity

    • Selection of resistant varieties

    • Crop rotations

    • Cropping schedules


Revolutionizing food production in cuba

Use of Chemicals in Cuba

(1000s of Tons)

75% reduction in use of chemical pesticides

IPM

APM


Founded 1962
Founded 1962

  • Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarios, Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas

  • First research center outside of Havana

  • The 1st Law of Certification of Organic Products resulted from a CIAP seminar

  • Trains students from

    throughout

    Latin America


Ciap s mission
CIAP’s Mission

CIAP is divided into

research,

laboratories,

& experiment stations


Ciap s experiment station
CIAP's Experiment Station

  • Produces all the food required by the university

  • Soil is a complex living being—

    involvesclimate,

    topography, time,

    structure, texture,

    water, chemicals,

    biology, plant roots,

    invertebrates,

    microorganisms


Instituto polit cnico agropecuario villa revoluci n
Instituto Politécnico Agropecuario “Villa-Revolución”

  • Founded in 1962

  • 1000s of its

    graduates are

    playing an

    important role

    in Cuban

    agriculture

  • Ing. Nelson Rujas:

    “La producción sostenible es nuestro producto”


Revolutionizing food production in cuba


Revolutionizing food production in cuba


Organized people the key participatory research
Organized People comment was the desire for Cuba to create a healthy future for the children and future generations The Key: Participatory Research


Cooperatives
Cooperatives comment was the desire for Cuba to create a healthy future for the children and future generations

  • 1961 – creation of ANAP, CCS’s

  • 1975 – creation of CPAs

  • 1993 – creation of UBPCs

  • All cooperatives in Cuba are voluntary


60 of campesinos belong to cooperatives cultivate 72 land
60% of Campesinos Belong to Cooperatives, Cultivate 72% Land comment was the desire for Cuba to create a healthy future for the children and future generations

  • 1219 CPAs

    • 60,266 members

    • 772,500 hectares

  • 2781 CCS’s

    • 163,800 members

    • 962,300 hectares

  • 2643 UBPCs

    • 257,000 members

    • 3,000,000 hectares

  • 1993: “Third Agrarian Reform”

    • 80% of state farms were broken up into UBPCs

    • Land under State control dropped from

      82% to 24%


Campesinos play a key role in state policy
Campesinos Play a Key Role comment was the desire for Cuba to create a healthy future for the children and future generations in State Policy

  • Unlike other countries, in Cuba there is no risk that campesinos will disappear

  • Their principal ally is the State, which gave land, credit, subsidized prices, markets, AND fosters campesino identity


Campesino a campesino movement

9000 Campesinos comment was the desire for Cuba to create a healthy future for the children and future generations

8000 Promoters

Campesino a CampesinoMovement


Campesino a campesino philosophy
Campesino a Campesino comment was the desire for Cuba to create a healthy future for the children and future generations Philosophy

  • Based on theoretical & practical work of Brazilian educator Paulo Freire

  • Horizontal communication between learner & teacher

  • Praxis of reflection-

    action-reflection to build

    political consciousness

    & social transformation


Why campesino a campesino
Why Campesino a Campesino? comment was the desire for Cuba to create a healthy future for the children and future generations

  • Knowlege is shared horizontally, combining skills with mobilization of campesino organizational strategies


1 st campesino a campesino workshop in cuba in 1996
1 comment was the desire for Cuba to create a healthy future for the children and future generations ST Campesino a Campesino Workshop in Cuba in 1996

  • In 1997 ANAP sponsored the VII International Congress of the Campesino a Campesino movement


Revolutionizing food production in cuba

  • “Our urban economy had hit bottom. comment was the desire for Cuba to create a healthy future for the children and future generations At that moment Cuba was going through a very critical period.

  • People worked out of pure solidarity & altruism.

    We gave workshops & people put what they learned into practice”


Revolutionizing food production in cuba

Promoters… comment was the desire for Cuba to create a healthy future for the children and future generations

  • are campesinos & members of cooperatives who assume a commitment of solidarity with their associates

  • They promote by teaching & demonstrating agroecological techniques

  • They apply pedagogical techniques on their fincas & teach other campesinos to apply the techniques


Yeikel 18 youth worker
Yeikel, 18, Youth Worker comment was the desire for Cuba to create a healthy future for the children and future generations


Revolutionizing food production in cuba

Agro comment was the desire for Cuba to create a healthy future for the children and future generations ecological knowledge ALSO

challenges the centralized,

hierarchical structures of

traditional agriculture


What makes it all work
What Makes It All Work? comment was the desire for Cuba to create a healthy future for the children and future generations

  • Cuba maintains relative economic equality for all, offers State assistance in the form of free education, free health care, and guaranteed employment, sends its highly skilled medical and environmental specialists around the world to help other nations,

  • And in the wake of Soviet collapse and the U.S. blockade, put into place an environmentally sustainable, chemical-free, organic agricultural system that turns attention to the causes of inequity, poverty, and food scarcity


Revolutionizing food production in cuba

  • Prioritization of the social good over individual accumulation constitutes one factor that makes the system work.

  • People are committed to food self-sufficiency, rather than profit, and their hearts and souls are devoted to that end. They are passionate about ensuring that everyone has food and that foods produced are healthy and chemical free

  • A social consciousness places people and nature above material wealth. It is a system that is socially just, grounded in culture, and aims for equity.


Globalizamos la lucha
¡ accumulation constitutes one factor that makes the system work.Globalizamos la Lucha!


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