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Steps to Civilization

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Steps to Civilization. Paleolithic Age Farming Revolution Permanent settlements Division of labor Specialization of labor Technology Trade Cities. Steps to Civilization. Steps to Civilization. Steps to Civilization. Paleolithic Age nomadic hunters and gatherers clan groups: 15-20

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Steps to Civilization

Paleolithic Age

Farming Revolution

Permanent settlements

Division of labor

Specialization of labor

Technology

Trade

Cities

slide4

Steps to Civilization

  • Paleolithic Age
  • nomadic hunters and gatherers
  • clan groups: 15-20
  • clan leader
  • moving with herds of game
  • low birth rate
slide6

Steps to Civilization

  • Farming Revolution
  • domestication of animals and plants in Near East
  • food surplus
  • increase in population
  • food surplus
  • increase in population
  • diets more balanced
slide7

Steps to Civilization

Plant Domestication:

Plant:

Growing a plant

Causing it to change genetically from wild ancestor

Goal: make it more useful to humans

slide8

Steps to Civilization

Plant Domestication:

Plant Domestication Stages:

Ancestor plant advantages (wheat, barley, peas): could be eaten, high yields, easily grown, grow quickly, easily stored, self pollinating, few genetic changes

slide9

Steps to Civilization

Plant Domestication:

Plant Domestication Stages:

First fruit and nut trees (olives, figs, dates, pomegranates, grapes): non nomadic life style, planted as cutting or seed, 3 year food yield cycle

slide10

Steps to Civilization

Plant Domestication:

Plant Domestication Stages:

Complex fruit and nut trees (apples, pears, plums, cherries): grafting, cross-pollination, experimentation

slide11

Steps to Civilization

Animal Domestication:

Animal:

selectively bred in captivity

modified from its wild ancestors,

for use by humans

who control the animal’s breeding and food supply

slide12

Steps to Civilization

Animal Domestication

Ancient Species of Big Herbivorous Domestic Mammals:

Sheep

Goat

Cow

Pig

Horse

Arabian camel

Bactrian camel

Llama/alpaca

Donkey

Reindeer

Water buffalo

Yak

Bali cattle

Mithan

13 are from Eurasia and 1 (llama/alpaca) from the Americas

slide13

Steps to Civilization

Animal Domestication

Ancient Species of Big Herbivorous Domestic Mammals:

Arabian camel

Bactrian camel

Llama/alpaca

Donkey

Reindeer

slide14

Steps to Civilization

Animal Domestication

Ancient Species of Big Herbivorous Domestic Mammals:

Water buffalo

Yak

Bali cattle

Mithan

13 are from Eurasia and 1 (llama/alpaca) from the Americas

slide15

Steps to Civilization

Animal Domestication

  • Big mammal domestication characteristics:
  • Diet- 10% biomass coefficient
  • Growth rate
  • Problems of captive breeding
  • Nasty disposition
  • Tendency to panic
  • Social structure
slide16

Steps to Civilization

Animal Domestication

Benefits of big mammal domestication:

  • Meat
  • Milk products
  • Fertilizer
  • Land transportation
  • Leather
  • Military assault vehicles
  • Plow traction
  • Wool

Germs

slide19

Steps to Civilization

  • Permanent settlements
  • farming villages: 250
  • village life
  • private property
  • warfare
slide21

Steps to Civilization

  • Division of labor
  • over production of food
  • need for part-time non-farming tasks: clothing, tool and weapon making, weaving, baskets, pottery
slide23

Steps to Civilization

  • Specialization of labor
  • artisan
  • skills in specialized crafts
  • non-farmers
slide25

Steps to Civilization

  • Technology
  • developed by artisans
  • advancements to improve the efficiency of every day life
  • closely guarded secrets
slide27

Steps to Civilization

  • Trade
  • need for unavailable resources
  • desire to have products you did not have
  • families, villages, regions
  • barter
  • one product exchanged for another product
slide29

Steps to Civilization

  • Cities
  • develop from growing farming villages
  • zone development: religion, trade, farming, etc.
  • required great organization
  • opportunities
  • problems
slide31

Steps to Civilization

Disadvantages:

crime, overcrowding, disease, war, shortages

Advantages:

security, diversity of services, technology, wealth, culture

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