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Chapter 12.3 . Seed Plants. Characteristics of Seed Plants. Life Cycle Alternates between two stages Differs from life cycle of seedless plants: Seed plants produce seed. Seeds nourish and protect young sporophytes.

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Chapter 12 3

Chapter 12.3

Seed Plants


Characteristics of seed plants
Characteristics of Seed Plants

  • Life Cycle

    • Alternates between two stages

    • Differs from life cycle of seedless plants:

      • Seed plants produce seed. Seeds nourish and protect young sporophytes.

      • Gametophytes of seed plants do not live as separate plants from the sporophytes

      • The sperm of seedless plants need water to swim to the eggs of female gametophytes. The sperm of seed plants do not need water to reach an egg. Sperm form inside tiny structures called pollen. Pollen can be transported by wind or animals.

    • These characteristics allow seed plants to live almost anywhere on earth!


The structure of seeds
The Structure of Seeds

  • A seed forms after fertilization, once the sperm and egg have joined

  • Seed is made up of three parts.

    • A young plant or sporophyte

    • A seed coat

    • Stored food found in the cotyledons

  • What advantages do seed plants have over seedless plants?


Gymnosperms
Gymnosperms

  • Seed plants that do not have flowers or fruit are called gymnosperms.

    • Their seeds are usually protected by a cone

    • Conifers are the most important gymnosperms. Their wood is used for paper and building materials

      • Produce resin which is used to make soap, paint, ink, anticancer drugs and allergy medication.


Gymnosperm life cycle
Gymnosperm Life Cycle

  • Conifers (meaning cone-bearing) have both male and female cones. The spores from each cone become tiny gametophytes.

    • The male gametophytes produce pollen which the wind carries to the female gametophyte cones which produce the eggs. This is called pollination.

    • A young sporophyte develops in the female cone surrounded by a seed.


Angiosperms
Angiosperms

  • Vascular plants that produce flowers and fruit are angiosperms. These are the most abundant plants today.

  • Angiosperm reproduction

    • Flowers help angiosperm reproduce, relying on the wind or animals to transfer the pollen

    • Fruits surround and protect angiosperms seeds which are then transported by animals or the environment to new places.



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