Solar energy
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Solar energy. تكنولوجيات الطاقات المتجددة. الإشعاع الشمسي العالمي. خريطة الإشعاع الشمسى على العالم. Potential of Solar Energy in Palestine. it has about 3000 sunshine hours per year

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Solar energy

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Solar energy




Potential of Solar Energy in Palestine

  • it has about 3000 sunshine hours per year

  • annual average of solar radiation amounting to 5.4 kWh/m2 day (19.44MJ) on horizontal surface, which classified as a high

  • in December, it amounts to 2.63 kWh/ m2 - day.

  • In June: 8.4 kWh/m2 - day


:

Photothermal: ,

: Photoelectric


  • ( ) ( ) , (10 )

PV cells

32

The tilted angle is fixed seasonally as follows:

=L+10 =32 +10 =42 during winter period.

=L=32 during spring and autumn period.

= L-10 =32-10=22 during summer period.



Solar collectors

  • :

  • .

  • .

  • .

  • .


Solar thermal systems

  • ( )

  • :

    • ( 50 )

    • ( 60 80 )

    • .


  • Solar thermal systems

    • flat-plate solar heater (collector) :

    • . . .

    • .


    • () Evacuated-tube heater

    • .

    • , 19 . .


    • Concentrating Collectors:

    • .

    • .

    • SOLAR COOKERS


    : :1- .2- .3- .4- .5- .6- .


    • :

    • P = MC (Thot - T cold)

    • P = (kWh/day)

    • M= (kg/day), 3.785 kg/gallon

    • C = = 0.001167 kWh/kgC

    • Thot = () 50=120

    • Tcold = () 18=65

    :

    :

    Ac = P / ( solar Imax)



    : Sun Tracking

    • ( Sun Tracker ) , ,

    • 33% ,

    Sun Tracking


    • PV )1000 ( 1 2 ,

    • (1 /2) 12 PV 1

    • ,


    • ( - )

    • (Tube) .

    • Flat (Parabolic) Sun tracker 33%


    • ( )

    • (Container) . ( ) .

    • 33%


    • ( )

    • . .


    • (Solar Chimney)

    • ( ) .


    • , Sun tracker , ( , , , ) , ( ) .


    ( )

    • .


    • .

    • .

    • .


    • .

    • .


    • .

    • .

    • .

    • .




    • .

    • (Sun Tracking) 33% . Concentrator .


    • () . .


    PV photo Volta Alessandro Volta 1800.


    (Photo Voltaic Cells)


    • () (2) :

    • Stand-alone systems .


    • Hybrid systems . .

    Grid connected systems .


    PV

    • :

    • 5 , 75 :

    • 75 * 5 = 375 /

    • PV =( \ * )

    Polycrystalline PV array = 8-12%


    PV

    • : :

      • .

      • .

    • : :

      • : : , , .

      • PV


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