1 / 23

LEARNING - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

LEARNING. e-Learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning-ch1&2 Clark, R. C. & Mayer, R. E. (2002). Advisor: Ming-Puu Chen Reporter: Chia-Yen Feng. Chapter 1 e-Learning promise & pitfalls. Outline. Definition of e-Learning

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' LEARNING' - livia

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript


e-Learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning-ch1&2

Clark, R. C. & Mayer, R. E. (2002)

Advisor: Ming-Puu Chen

Reporter: Chia-Yen Feng

Chapter 1 e learning promise pitfalls

Chapter 1e-Learning promise & pitfalls


  • Definition of e-Learning

  • A description of different types of e-Learning

  • Potential benefits and drawbacks to e-Learning

What is e learning


What & Why

What is e-Learning?

  • What

    • Includes content (information)

    • Uses instructional methods (techniques)

  • How

    • Uses media elements

  • Why

    • Builds new knowledge and skills

e - Learning

E learning development process
e-Learning development process

  • Performance analysis

    • Help meet important organizational goals by filling a gap in knowledge and skills

    • e-learning is the best delivery solution

  • Defining e-Learning content

    • Job or content analysis

    • Content types

      • Fact, concept, process, procedures, principles

  • Design

    • Create a course blueprint

  • Development

  • Testing & implementation

    • Defining the instructional methods & media elements

    • How delivery platforms influence instructional methods and media elements

Five types of content in e learning
Five types of content in e-Learning

  • Fact

    • Specific and unique data or instance

  • Concept

    • A category that includes multiple examples

  • Process

    • A flow of events or activities

  • Procedure

    • Take performed with step-by-step actions

  • Principle

    • Task perform by adopting guidelines

E learning goals
e-Learning goals

  • Inform programs

    • Build awareness or provides information

  • Perform programs

    • Build specific skills

    • Two types

      • Procedural (near transfer,相似性轉移)

      • Principle-based (far transfer,差別性轉移)

Is e learning better media comparison research
Is e-Learning better? Media comparison research

  • The hundreds of media comparison studies have shown no difference in learning

  • All the media comparison research is that it’s not the medium  the instructional methods that cause learning

  • Each medium offers unique opportunities to deliver instructional method  effectively support human learning

What make e learning unique
What make e-Learning unique?

  • Practice with feedback

    • Responds with hints or feedback supporting immediate correction or errors

  • Collaboration in self-study

    • There is a growing research base on the benefits of learning together versus solo

  • Use of simulation to accelerate expertise

E learning the pitfalls
e-Learning : the pitfalls

  • Failure to base e-Learning on job analysis

    • Lessons do not build knowledge and skills that transfer to the job

  • Failure to accommodate human learning processes( human learning limits and strengths)

    • Lesson overload cognitive process and learning is disrupted

  • E-learning dropout

    • Learner do not complete their instruction

What is good e courseware
What is good e-Courseware

  • Training goals

    • Inform student, perform procedure, perform principle

  • Learner difference (the prior knowledge)

    • Instructional methods appropriate to the learner’s characteristics( e.g learning styles, prior knowledge)

  • Training environment

    • Technical constraint

    • Cultural factors

    • Pragmatic constraint (e.g. budge, time, management expectations)

Three types of e learning
Three types of e-Learning

  • Receptive: information acquisition

    • Receptive instruction (show-and-tell)

    • Include lots of information with limited practice opportunities

    • Designed for inform goals

  • Directive: response strengthening

    • Directive instruction (show-and -do)

    • Require frequent responses from learners with immediate feedback

    • Drill and practice

    • Designed for perform-procedure goals

  • Guided discovery: knowledge construction

    • Provide job-realistic problems and supporting resources

    • Designed for perform-principle goals

Chapter2 how people learn from e course

Chapter2 how people learn from e-Course


  • How do people learn

  • How e-Lessons affect human learning

  • What is good research

How do people learn 1 3
How do people learn?(1/3)

  • Two channels:visual & auditory

  • Limited capacity for processing information

  • Learning occurs by active processing in memory information

  • New knowledge and skills  retrieved form LTM

  • transfer to job

How do people learn 2 3
How do people learn?(2/3)

  • The center of cognition since all active thinking take places there

  • A limited of capacity memory

How do people learn 3 3
How do people learn?(3/3)

  • Encoding

  • Rehearsal

  • retrieval

How e lessons affect human learning 1 2
How e-lessons affect human learning (1/2)

  • Selection of the importance information in the lesson

  • Management of the limited capacity in working memory to allow the rehearsal needed for learning

    • Coherence principle (ch7)

  • Methods for integration

    • Contiguity principle (ch4)

How e lessons affect human learning 2 2
How e-lessons affect human learning (2/2)

  • Methods for retrieval and transfer

  • Methods for metacognitive monitoring

    • Management of all of these process via metacognitive skills

    • Self-check: to asses oneself skill acquisition

Summary of learning processes
Summary of learning processes

  • Focus on key graphics and words in the lesson to select what will be processed

  • Rehearse information in working memory to organize and integrate it with existing knowledge in LTM apply cognitive load reduction tecniques

  • New knowledge stored in LTM must be retrieved back on the jobtransfer of learning

  • Metacognitive skills manage and adjust these processes

What is good research
What is good research?

  • Informal studies (observational studies)

    • Conclusion bases on feedback from and observations of students

  • Controlled studies (experimental studies)

    • Conclusion bases on outcome comparison of randomly assigned participants to groups with different treatments

  • Clinical trials (controlled field testing)

    • Conclusion bases on outcome of lessons taken in actual learning settings

How can you identify relevant research
How can you identify relevant research

  • How similar are the learners in the research study to your learner?

  • Are the conclusions based on an experimental research design?

  • Are the experimental results replicated?

  • Is learning measured by tests that measure application?

  • Does the data analysis reflect statistical significance as well as practical significance?

Interpretation of research statistics
Interpretation of research statistics

  • Means

  • Standard deviation

    • High averages and low SD

  • Probability

  • Effect size