Route transition interventions encouraging switching from injecting and preventing its adoption
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route transition interventions encouraging switching from injecting and preventing its adoption. welsh needle exchange forum, national conference cardiff 20 th april, 2010 neil hunt. Workshop goals. Briefly review a range of interventions that aim to reduce injecting

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Route transition interventions encouraging switching from injecting and preventing its adoption

route transition interventions encouraging switching from injecting and preventing its adoption

welsh needle exchange forum, national conference

cardiff 20th april, 2010

neil hunt


Workshop goals

Workshop goals

  • Briefly review a range of interventions that aim to reduce injecting

  • Reflect on the ethics of intervention in this area of practice

  • Discuss opportunities to develop services in Wales that:

    • Draw on our existing evidence and understanding

    • Are relevant to the needs of people in Wales

    • Might realistically be adopted within your service


What are our intervention points

What are our intervention points?

Decrease incidence of injecting i.e. things that prevent or delay people from starting

Increase outcidence i.e. increase the rate at which people wholly or partially stop injecting


Are our interventions right and proper

Are our interventions right and proper?


Ethical considerations

Ethical considerations

  • Are our interventions based on the goals and concerns of:

    • people who inject/those at risk of starting to or…

    • someone else’s agenda?

  • Will our programmes increase stigma and discrimination?

  • Does a focus on transitions interventions divert attention, energy & resources from more important work?

  • Other unintended consequences?


Preventing initiation

Preventing initiation

  • Psycho-educational programmes e.g. Casriel et al 1990, 1992, Roy et al in progress

  • Break the Cycle e.g. Hunt et al 1998; PSI Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Viet Nam; “One shot” New South Wales; UNICEF/Aksion Plus/Stop AIDS, Albania; Scottish HCV strategy (in progress); “BTC/CTC (Change The Cycle)” Canada (in progress)

  • Opioid substitution treatment – Timely OST for heroin dependent chasers/sniffers can prevent escalation to injecting

  • Unintended consequences?

  • OST can also be used to promote injecting if you make injecting an eligibility criterion for treatment!


Promoting switching

Promoting switching

  • Social marketing e.g. “It’s good to chase” HOT, East London; “Smoking Brown”, Lifeline

  • Foil distribution e.g. Pizzey and Hunt 2008

  • Opioid Substitution Treatment…again


Ost and reductions in injecting

OST and reductions in injecting

  • In first month of methadone treatment 25% stop injecting and a further 70% inject less often (Strang et al 1997)

  • Higher doses are associated with stopping injecting (Capelhorn et al 1993)

  • Effectiveness depends on the nature and intensity of other non-pharmacological treatment factors (Ball and Ross 1991)

  • Methadone maintenance reduces injecting in prisons (Stallwitz and Stöver 2007)

  • Do we currently provide our services in a way that optimises these outcomes?


Route transition interventions encouraging switching from injecting and preventing its adoption

Foil distribution

  • Not for everyone and not all of the time, but foil distribution has been clearly shown to promote both full or partial switching from injecting

  • Foil provision enables earlier engagement of non-injecting heroin users

  • All police forces in Wales have now provided ‘letters of comfort’ regarding foil distribution and S9a of MDA

  • Just giving out foil isn’t enough. How might foil distribution programmes be implemented in your service to get best results?


Further opportunities

Further opportunities?

  • Social marketing aimed at Montreal street youth

  • Drug consumption rooms

  • ITEP/BTEI

  • ‘New recovery’


Social marketing campaign targeting street youth

Social marketing campaign targeting street youth

Elise Roy et al., Evaluation of a Media Campaign Aimed at Preventing Initiation Into Drug Injection Among Street Youth. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy (2007) 14, 5,401- 414


Route transition interventions encouraging switching from injecting and preventing its adoption

  • Lighters

  • Pre paid calling cards

  • Chocolate

  • Water


Results

Results

  • Powerful, positive impact with the target population (non-injecting street youth)

  • Unintended consequence – Some injectors also found the campaign useful because it caused them to reflect on their injecting

  • Some injectors felt that the fear-based messages and images are too harsh and confrontational and expressed concerns that the campaign could be stigmatizing


Drug consumption rooms

Drug Consumption Rooms

  • Shortened injecting careers?

  • Weekly use of safe injecting facility roughly doubles likelihood of entering detox.

  • ‘Quarantine’ effect

  • Can DCRs reduce mixing of people who inject with non-injectors and decrease the social transmission of injecting?

  • Wood et al 2006, Attendance at safer injecting facilities and use of detoxification services. New England Journal of Medicine


Itep btei

ITEP/BTEI

  • A “non pharmacological treatment factor”?

  • ‘Nodal Link Mapping’ - potential maps (guided/free/hybrid)

    • Injecting pros and cons

    • Injecting alternatives

    • Injecting lapse/relapse


New recovery new opportunities to reduce injecting

New Recovery: new opportunities to reduce injecting?

  • New context and new zeal

    • We’ve never had this proportion of people who inject engaged in treatment

    • We’ve never had this level of service coverage before

    • We’ve never had a treatment workforce this size before

    • Recovery is now central to our national strategies

    • A recovery renaissance with a more mature engagement between harm reductionists and the recovery movement

    • No-one has ever been here before

  • Are there new opportunities that a recovery orientation overlaying a harm reduction based treatment system can now bring?


Recovery walk cardiff 10 th september 2011

Recovery Walk, Cardiff 10th September, 2011


Small groups

Small groups


Which if any interventions seem to have most potential for

Which, if any, interventions seem to have most potential for:

  • Improving the health and well-being of drug users in your service or locality

  • Actually being implemented


Thank you

Thank you


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