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Thomas Kuhn 1922-1996 ( Ohio) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Thomas Kuhn 1922-1996 ( Ohio). PhD in physics but never worked as physicist. Best known for theory of PARADIGMS Paradigms -thought patterns or conceptual frameworks in any science. NORMAL SCIENCE. Kuhn. PARADIGMS. METAPHYSICS  (WORLD VIEW/COSMOLOGY)  METHOD THEORY  METHOD

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Thomas Kuhn 1922-1996 ( Ohio)

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Thomas kuhn 1922 1996 ohio l.jpg

Thomas Kuhn 1922-1996 (Ohio)

PhD in physics but never worked as physicist.

Best known for theory of PARADIGMS

Paradigms-thought patterns or conceptual frameworks in any science


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NORMAL SCIENCE

Kuhn

PARADIGMS

METAPHYSICS (WORLD VIEW/COSMOLOGY)  METHOD

THEORY METHOD

HYPOTHESIS  METHOD

The paradigm "sits above" one's metaphysics, etc., determining what your metaphysics will be.

In turn, one's metaphysics or one's theory of method might determine which method one uses or which theory one uses.

In turn, one's theories might determine which hypotheses are viable, and the method you used before might determine which methods are proper now.


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NORMAL SCIENCE

Kuhn

  • BUT there is much fluidity--

  • A paradigm can be all encompassing —a metaphysics or a cosmology

  • But a paradigm DOES NOT have to be an all encompassing metaphysics or cosmology

    • A paradigm could be just a broad or narrower theory

    • A paradigm will influence method

      but when a paradigm shifts, method might remain the same, if pre-shift & post-shift entail same method


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NORMAL SCIENCE

Kuhn

“Paradigms gain their status because they are :

more successful than their competitors in solving a few problems that the group of practitioners has come to recognize as acute"


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NORMAL SCIENCE

Kuhn

INCOMMENSURABILITY :

not possible to understand one paradigm through the conceptual framework and terminology of another rival paradigm.

In other words, 2 scientists working from 2 competing paradigms cannot understand each other!


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NORMAL SCIENCE

Kuhn

  • NORMAL SCIENCE is:

  • “Research firmly based upon one or more past scientific achievements

  • that some particular scientific community acknowledges for a time as supplying the foundation for its further practice “

  • “achievement(s)” are the PARADIGM


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NORMAL SCIENCE

Kuhn

  • Popper, Duhem, & Feigl all look at science as a path to discovery

  • Kuhn stresses dis-covery--taking the covers off a paradigm

  • paradigm unwrapped = (Normal Science)


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NORMAL SCIENCE

Kuhn

COMMUNITIES OF SCIENTISTS (are where scientific paradigms come from)

  • Students study paradigms to become members of a particular scientific community

  • Students are taught & mentored by researchers who use the paradigms’ models & methods—paradigm becomes foundation.

  • So there's a circle here


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NORMAL SCIENCE

Kuhn

By focusing attention on a small range of relatively esoteric problems, the paradigm forces scientists to investigate some part of nature in a detail and depth that would otherwise be unimaginable" (24).

Normal science is busy work, and it is that detailed busy work that makes science successful


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NORMAL SCIENCE

Kuhn

NORMAL SCIENCE's “busy work” of PUZZLE-SOLVING –rules apply

  • creating methods of inquiry.

  • formulating questions.

  • selecting ways to examine questions.

  • defining areas of relevance.

  • honing definitions.


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NORMAL SCIENCE

Kuhn

  • MAIN PROBLEMS (as the work of NORMAL SCIENCE

  • Determine significant facts.

    • fact-gathering (experiments & observations described in journals)

    • increase accuracy & scope of facts relevant to paradigm.

  • Correlate facts w/ theory.

    • focus on facts relevant to predictions arising from paradigm’s theories

    • A paradigm sets the problems to be solved (27).

  • Articulate theory-- should produce new info & more precise paradigm.

    • resolve residual ambiguities,

    • permit solution of problems theory brings to light

      • determination of universal constants.

      • development of quantitative laws.

      • clarification by reformulation


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NORMAL SCIENCE

Kuhn

WHAT NORMAL SCIENCE DOES NOT DO

  • no effort to invent new theory (and no tolerance for those who try).

  • no effort to look for new sorts of phenomena.

  • no effort to discover anomalies.

  • when anomalies pop up, they are usually discarded or ignored.

  • anomalies usually not even noticed (tunnel vision/one track mind).


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NORMAL SCIENCE

Kuhn

PROBLEM W/ KUHN’S INFLUENCE ON SCIENTIFIC METHOD –

PGS—incommensurability doesn’t seem to describe real scientific practice—paradigms overlap

Kuhn’s own creation of a paradigm —now it’s okay to do the kind of busy work that more & more looks like bad science


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