Thomas Kuhn 1922-1996 ( Ohio). PhD in physics but never worked as physicist. Best known for theory of PARADIGMS Paradigms -thought patterns or conceptual frameworks in any science. NORMAL SCIENCE. Kuhn. PARADIGMS. METAPHYSICS (WORLD VIEW/COSMOLOGY) METHOD THEORY METHOD
PhD in physics but never worked as physicist.
Best known for theory of PARADIGMS
Paradigms-thought patterns or conceptual frameworks in any science
METAPHYSICS (WORLD VIEW/COSMOLOGY) METHOD
The paradigm "sits above" one's metaphysics, etc., determining what your metaphysics will be.
In turn, one's metaphysics or one's theory of method might determine which method one uses or which theory one uses.
In turn, one's theories might determine which hypotheses are viable, and the method you used before might determine which methods are proper now.
but when a paradigm shifts, method might remain the same, if pre-shift & post-shift entail same method
“Paradigms gain their status because they are :
more successful than their competitors in solving a few problems that the group of practitioners has come to recognize as acute"
not possible to understand one paradigm through the conceptual framework and terminology of another rival paradigm.
In other words, 2 scientists working from 2 competing paradigms cannot understand each other!
COMMUNITIES OF SCIENTISTS (are where scientific paradigms come from)
By focusing attention on a small range of relatively esoteric problems, the paradigm forces scientists to investigate some part of nature in a detail and depth that would otherwise be unimaginable" (24).
Normal science is busy work, and it is that detailed busy work that makes science successful
NORMAL SCIENCE's “busy work” of PUZZLE-SOLVING –rules apply
WHAT NORMAL SCIENCE DOES NOT DO
PROBLEM W/ KUHN’S INFLUENCE ON SCIENTIFIC METHOD –
PGS—incommensurability doesn’t seem to describe real scientific practice—paradigms overlap
Kuhn’s own creation of a paradigm —now it’s okay to do the kind of busy work that more & more looks like bad science