Program for North American Mobility in Higher Education Introducing Process Integration for Environmental Control in Engineering Curricula. Module 3: Environmental Challenges – Pulp & Paper Industry Caroline Gaudreault Created at: École Polytechnique de Montréal & Texas A&M University, 2003.
Module 3: Environmental Challenges – Pulp & Paper Industry
École Polytechnique de Montréal &
Texas A&M University, 2003
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Tier II: Statement of Intent
The purpose of this module is to demonstrate the application of the minimum manufacturing concepts using the Thunder Bay and Louisiana-Pacific case studies, and introduces the concepts of BAT and strategic planning.
Tier II also includes some selected readings, to help the student acquire a deeper understanding of this subject.
Tier II is broken into four sections:
2.1 The Thunder Bay case study
2.2 The Louisiana Pacific Samoa case study
2.3 Strategic long-term planning for kraft mills, technology roadmaps, and MIM metrics
2.4 Best Available Technologies for the kraft processes
At the end of Tier II, there is a short multiple-
In 1974, Great Lakes Forest Products Limited (GLFP) decided to build a second kraft line (kraft mill B) in their mill located in Thunder Bay, Ontario. As a result of this, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (OMOE) asked them to construct a secondary treatment of the effluent in order to reduce BOD5, toxic elements and suspended solids discharged to the river. GLFP considered aerated lagoons but there was no close available space to accommodate it. This is why they began to discussed with Howard Rapson at the University of Toronto about the “Closed-Cycle Mill” concept. They endorsed the concept and submitted the project to the OMOE in place of secondary treatment.
The OMOE gave the approval for the construction of the “close-cycle” kraft mill B, but with the provision than by March 1978, GLFP proves that:
The B mill began its operations in 1976 but the “close-cycle” operations were initiated only in 1977 after the salt recovery plant was completed.
From 1977 to 1985, the “close-cycle” system was developed continuously in collaboration with the University of Toronto as well than with other players.
Pitch deposits and scaling problems severely limited close-cycle operations, and more particulary during hardwood processing.
In 1985, the close-cycle operations were discontinued for a lot of reasons including:
The main characteristics of the system were:
(Adapted from Springer & al., 2001)
Corrosion: Great Lakes Mill
High temperature and chloride levels will increase the potential for corrosion in the close-cycle system. Even in bleaching plant equipment building material was carefully selected. Early evidence of corrosion was noted.
Hardwood runs were characterized by deposits from wood extractives, residues from defoamers and other sources which caused a lot of problems: pitch, scale, defoamer residues and talc/pitch deposits plugged washer fabrics and wires, washer nozzles and filtrate lines. Because of that, some filtrate recycle streams were discontinued during hardwood runs.Impact on Pulp Mill Operations The Bleach Plant
Initial Design Problems:
D Great Lakes Mill C Closure:
Prior to be recycled, the filtrate from this stage was neutralized with NaOH which result in a Ca/lignin/pitch precipitation that deposited on fabric and wire and in a impaired drainage. These deposit were removed using acid which result in corrosion.
Also, because of the high organic content in the recycle stream, there was an increase in chemical consumption for this stage.
E1 filtrate was recycled to the brown decker which resulted in poor washing efficiency and carryover to the D C stage with incresed chemical consumption.
This was corrected by recycling the E1 filtrate to washer where the solids content matched more the dissolved solids in the filtrate.
Availability of the SRP, pluggage, pitch and scale had also severely hampered E1 closure.Impact on Pulp Mill Operations The Bleach Plant
Corrosion: Great Lakes Mill
Salt-falls in the evaporators caused corrosion.
Some pitting corrosion occurred on the vapor side of the crystallizer heat exchanger.
The SRP experienced poor steam econokmy and high energy costs.
The original liquor solids removal system (thickeners and vacuum filters) were not effective in handling large crystal size distributions. It was replaced by a cyclone.
Scale occurred in the evaporators that needed frequent washes.Impact on Pulp Mill Operations The Salt Recovery Plant
It was poor. After equipment and process modification the availability was adequate for 50% closure if the pulp mill uses 50% hardwood and 50% softwood.
The problems occurred during startups and shutdowns and there were problems recovering excess filtrates generated during upsets.
During the SRP shutdowns, there was no capacity to store and recover E1 filtrate used to dilute the SRP white liquor.
These occurred particularly with hardwood pulping and bleaching.
Chloride input to the recovery cycle was restricted to reduce the potential for more corrosion.
Process simulation will have give more insight on the process and the potential build-up of contaminant. This way, interception equipment could have been put in place in order to avoid corrosion and other troubles due to contaminant build-up.
The first advantage of mass integration is to target what is possible in terms of water reduction. Knowing the target helps in achieving the reduction. Furthermore, mass integration will have allow to implement the best trade-off between water reduction and cost.
The main objective of the project was to avoid the secondary treatment. LCA could have help in evaluating the solution in term of environmental impact and convince the Ministry of Environment that a total closing of the water loop was not necessary.
Bleaching process that uses no chlorine compounds.
Bleaching process that uses chlorine dioxide.
(Adapted from Louisiana-Pacific, 2000)
Next step will be:
Conversion of the existing single-stage oxygen delignification system to a two-stage oxygen delignification unit in order to increase the degree of delignification achieved from the current 48% to 65%.
Next step will be (cont’d):
Changing of the peroxide bleaching system for a pressurized one in order to reduce chemical consumption while improving pulp brightness.
Replacement of the current 35-year-old pulp cleaning system with one of a more modern design that will will be more efficient dirt removal from the pulp and may include additional processing capability to remove lighter particles such as plastics.
Usage of solid waste from green liquor filtration as a lime
replacement in agricultural applications.
L.-P. is already a success story. However, the do had some problems with NPEs and maybe their final water network is not optimal in terms of water/reduction and costs incurred. A combined process simulation and mass integration approach will have ensure them optimality or at least they will know they are not.
The most advantages L.-P. can have come from LCA. They are opportunist and think in terms of competitive advantage. LCA will have enable to communicate their environmental friendliness.
Long-term decision-making process by which an enterprise determines its strategic choices and the action programs aiming at the implementation of these choice.
(Grand Dictionnaire Terminologique, 2004)
MISSION AND OBJECTIVES
Likely future trends/ events
(adapted from QuickMBA, 2004)
EVALUATION & CONTROL
To learn more on the strategic planning process click on the step boxes
“Consumer demand dictates the mix of production. Manufacturers of each product compete for market share by making better products at lower cost. Technology is the tool that adds value to products and boosts the efficiency of the manufacturing process.” (Burke, 1997)
Competitiveness is not longer as simple as make better products at lower costs but issues such as sustainable development, environmental stewardship and global competition are more and more important.
“Added-value” that was originally defined as higher product quality and better process efficiency, now includes notions such as sustainable production and minimum impact on the environment.
As a result of this, technology must no longer only enhance product and process efficiency, but also be more sustainable.
Over the last decades, technological leadership in the pulp and paper industry has switched from the U.S. to the Canada and Scandinavian countries.
Fiber supply, pollution prevention, energy consumption, water usage and capital effectiveness are key challenges facing the industry. Some people think that the use of recycle fibers may become an economical issue more than a political issue.
There is a consensus that legislations will be more and more stringent over the next 25 years.
I.P. believes that it should manage its facilities and water and fiber resources by the degree of environmental stewardship required by the society:
“Corporate Sustainability is a business approach that creates long-term shareholder value by embracing opportunities and managing risks deriving from economic, environmental and social developments. Corporate sustainability leaders achieve long-term shareholder value by gearing their strategies and management to harness the market's potential for sustainability products and services while at the same time successfully reducing and avoiding sustainability costs and risks.” (DSJI, 2003)
Companies that show leadership in sustainability are very competent in dealing with the following global and industry challenges:
“Integrating long-term economic, environmental and social aspects in their business strategies while maintaining global competitiveness and brand reputation.”
“Meeting shareholders' demands for sound financial returns, long-term economic growth, open communication and transparent financial accounting.”
“Fostering loyalty by investing in customer relationship management and product and service innovation that focuses on technologies and systems, which use financial, natural and social resources in an efficient, effective and economic manner over the long-term.”
Global and industry challenges (Cont’d):
“Setting the highest standards of corporate governance and stakeholder engagement, including corporate codes of conduct and public reporting.”
“Managing human resources to maintain workforce capabilities and employee satisfaction through best-in-class organizational learning and knowledge management practices and remuneration and benefit programs.”
According to Dow Jones, corporate sustainability is an investable concept.
(Source: PWC, 2003)
Two factors drive the investment in companies that sets the industry-wide sustainable best practices:
DJSI: Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes
The DJSI are the first first global indexes tracking the financial performance of the leading sustainability-driven companies worldwide. They were launched in 1999 in response to investor’s needs to quantity corporate sustainability. They provide asset managers with reliable and objective benchmarks to manage sustainability issues. There are currently 51 licenses in 14 countries including a large variety of industries.
Domtar is the only Canadian Pulp & Paper company to be a member of the DJSI. In 2000, Domtar was the sustainability leader among the paper products companies.
Only companies that consider ethical, environmental and social aspects in their decision-making process can be member in the DJSI. Domtar is proud of its inclusion in the index, and intends to continue improving sustainability.
Domtar promotes its membership to the DJSI in order to gain a competitive advantage over competitors.
Coilte (Ireland) Great Lakes Mill
Crown Van Gelder (Netherlands)
Graham & Brown (UK)
International Paper (USA)
MeadWestVaco Corporation (USA)
Mondi Paper (South Africa)
North-West Timber Company (Russia)
Österreichische Bundesforste (Austria)
Siam Kraft Industry (Thailand)
Stora Enso (Sweden)
Tetra Pak (Spain)
Visy Industries (Australia)
Weyerhaeuser (USA)Corporate SustainabilityGlobal Reporting Initiative (GRI)
17 Forest & Paper products companies are GRI members:
Georgia-Pacific Case study
Georgia-Pacific recognizers its success is dependent on the community it touches. They have reported their financial, environmental and social performance since years but now sees the benefits it putting all this information together. This way, their progress toward sustainable environment, giving back to the communities where we live and work, operating safely, and promoting an innovative and inclusive work environment can be appreciated.
Georgia-Pacific Case study
They choose internet as the best media for reporting on their corporate citizenship which consists in the following 4 key areas:
Main Characteristic of technology:
Technology is an applied knowledge focusing on the “know-how” of an organization.
"Technology management addresses the effective Identification, selection, acquisition, development, exploitation and protection of technologies (product, process and infrastructural) needed to maintain a market position and business performance in accordance with the company’s objectives“ (European Institute of Technology Management)
Technology has important role to play in delivering companies value and competitive advantage.
“Technology roadmapping is a planning process that gives decision-makers a means to identify, evaluate and select among strategic alternatives for achieving technological objectives.” (Industry Canada, 2004)
“Roadmapping is a key technology management tool that enables companies to link their technological capability to product and business plans so that strategy and technology development go hand-in-hand. Technology roadmaps provide a graphical framework for exploring and communicating strategic plans. They comprise a layered, time-based chart, linking market, product and technology information, enabling market opportunities and technology gaps to be identified.” (Cambridge University, 2002)
Schematic technology roadmap, showing how technology can be aligned to product and service developments, business strategy, and market opportunities.
Product planning: Great Lakes Mill
Insertion of technology into manufactured products.
Focus on the support of organizational capability by technology.
Supports the evaluation of opportunities and threats and focuses on the development of a vision of the future of the organization.
Extends the time horizon and is usually applied on a national level.
Knowledge asset planning:
Aligning knowledge assets and knowledge management initiatives with business objectives.
Implementation of strategy, and more directly relates to project planning
Supports the management of knowledge, focusing on a particular process area
Integration and/or evolution of technology, in terms of how different technologies combine within products and systems, or to form new technologiesTechnology Roadmaps:Purposes
Current State of Industry
In 1994, there were 425 member companies of the AFPA which represents more than 90% of the industry. These companies grow, harvest, and process wood and wood fiber; manufacture pulp, paper, and paperboard products from both virgin and recovered fiber; and produce solid wood products. In 1994, the industry production was more than $200 billion by year and was employing 1.4 million people directly and ranked as one of the top 10 manufacturing industries in 46 out of 50 states.
Global Competiveness Issues
The U.S. forest, wood and paper industry was one of the most competitive in the world in 1994. However to stay competitive, the industry must be more efficient in raw material supply, compete effectively with the threat of new materials, operate in harmony with the environment, and strengthen its image as a good investment with its stakeholders and as a good corporate citizen with the public.
Developing countries are more and more low costs producer of forest wood and paper products and lesser developed countries with a lot of resources will join them in the future. Canada and Scandinavian countries are strong competitors to the U.S. and will continue to be. Also these countries have taken the leadership concerning technical issues related to pulp and paper science, processes and equipment manufacture.
U.S. industry cash flow was significantly reduced due to capital investment required during the 1980s to build and maintain the industry's global competitiveness and increasingly large environmental expenditures.
Industry’s Vision for the Future
The comparison of future expectations with current state of the industry, it is possible to point out several strategic planning issues which drive the following technology program:
Research Areas to Fulfill the Vision
The following is a list of measures to reduce the consumption of fresh steam and electric power, and to increase the generation of steam and electric power internally.
For all the previous measures, several technologies a currently available and some better ones will emerge in the future. Choosing with ones to implement and in which order is not obvious. Choices must be justified not only environmentally but also economically.
Strategic planning through roadmap can lighten the choice of the technologies to implement and made this choice becoming a competitive advantage for the company in the future. The choice of technologies is important in achieving the company’s vision and must take into consideration the probable state of the entire industry in the future. Unfortunately, nobody can accurately predict what will happen in the future so technology roadmaps must be revisited and updated on a regular basis as the situation evolves.
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Global warming Great Lakes Mill
Virgin fiber consumption
Energy consumptionExamples of LCA-MIM Metrics
Veracel Mill Great Lakes Mill
Veracel is a Stora Enso’s mill that will be located in Eunapolis Brazil. Its construction has been announced in May 2003. It will produce 900 000 t/year of Eucalyptus pulp. will be the largest single-line bleached eucalyptus pulp mill in the world. The construction of this mill has raised a lot of concerns due to its use of Rainforest resources.An Example:Veracel’s Vision of Sustainability
1991: The Veracruz plantation project established; first lands acquired.
1992: Planting begins.
1997: Stora acquires a stake in the project.
1998: Merger between Stora and Enso.
1999: Veracruz becomes Veracel.
2000: Aracruz acquires a stake in the project.
2001: First harvests cut in the plantations; barge terminal construction begins.
2002: Barge operations begin; decision made to build the Veracel pulp mill.
2003: Ownership of Veracel finalised with Stora Enso owning 50% and Aracruz owning 50%. Pulp mill construction announced and commenced.
2005: Pulp production due to start.
Veracel aims to become the leading pulp mill and plantation concept in the world by:
The Actions: Local Welfare Generations
The Actions: Employee Welfare
Core labor rights in contractors’ and suppliers’ operations as well as internally will be addressed
The Actions: Support for Education and Health Care
A total of USD 8 million will be invested in social infrastructure programs during the period 2003–2005.
The Actions: Commitment to Global Models for Plantation
Plantations are already ISO 14001 certified and are preparing for other forest certifications (e.g. CERFLOR ).
The Atlantic Rainforest Program will be fostered and the active regeneration of natural rainforest accelerated(400 hectares in 2004).
The Actions: Minimizing Environmental Impact of the Mill
Veracel will use the best available technologies in planning and construction.
It also has a commitment to certified environmental management system.
Stora Enzo has recognized that, in order to stay competitive, this mill as to be built and operated in harmony with the environment and the local community. They will be regularly audited by an independent firm and they will submit a sustainable report every year.
Why does GLFP decided to implement the Rapson-Reeve process?
What is one of the major reason for the failure of the Great Lakes process closure?
In the L.-P. case study, which of the following was not a benefit of the CC-TCF process implementation?
To which of the following mill will you most recommend to implement closed-cycle bleach process?
To which of the following mill will you most recommend to implement closed-cycle bleach process?
Which of the following can be considered as a strategic planning action?
If you build a technology roadmap to supports the evaluation of opportunities and threats and focuses on the development of a vision of the future of the organization, which purpose do you want to achieve?
What is Agenda 2020?
Which one is not a general measure to reduce environmental according to the BATs?
What does LCA can bring to the MIM metrics?
AchievementGlobal authority on pulp
and paper chemistryBirthdateSeptember 15, 1912BirthplaceToronto, Ontario
Date of DeathMarch 16, 1997
Place of DeathToronto, Ontario
Rapson was educated at the University of Toronto (BASc, 1934; MASc, 1935; PhD, 1941). He became an expert in pulp and paper chemistry which involves the manufacture and purification of wood pulp and cellulose for making paper. His particular specialty was in the use of chlorite ion (ClO2) pulping and bleaching which he developed during World War II when the usual pulping agent, sulfuric acid, was in short supply. He holds 33 patents in 45 countries and has received numerous awards. Sources: Canadian Who’s Who 1993, personal communication; photo from Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada.
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This cooking process is characterized by low initial alkali concentration and low final lignin concentration. This cooking process also ensure good pulp strength properties.
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The mission describes the organization’s business vision including:
From an organization’s point of view, it can be seen as the answer to the following questions:
Measurable financial (e.g. sales target, earning growth) and strategic (e.g. business position, market share, reputation) objectiveswill be defined based on the mission.
The followings components are included in the environmental scanning:
Identification of the firm’s strengths and weaknesses.
Revelation of opportunities and threats.
Environment in which the firm operates that can be described by political, economic, social and technological factors.
Monitoring and adjusting the strategy are very important for its success. The steps in evaluation and control are:
CERFLOR is a forest certification scheme within the national standardization system under the National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality’s resposibility.
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The Atlantic Rainforest Program, launched in 1999, seeks to develop a number of far-reaching initiatives at the national level.
Activities include monitoring the elaboration, implementation and assessment of public policies, of specific legislation and programs for the preservation and sustainable use of the Atlantic Rainforest’s resources.
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