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Dietary Guidelines for Americans. What are the 2005 Dietary Guidelines ?. Provides science-based advice to promote health and reduce risk of major chronic diseases Encourages most Americans to: Eat fewer calories Be more physically active Eat a healthful diet by making wiser food choices

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What are the 2005 Dietary Guidelines?

  • Provides science-based advice to promote health and reduce risk of major chronic diseases

  • Encourages most Americans to:

    • Eat fewer calories

    • Be more physically active

    • Eat a healthful diet by making wiser food choices

    • Prepare and handle foods to reduce risk of foodborne illness

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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41 key recommendations

23 for general public

18 for special populations

10 chapters

Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs

Weight Management

Physical Activity

Food Groups To Encourage

Fats

Carbohydrates

Sodium and Potassium

Alcoholic Beverages

Food Safety

2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Evolution of USDA’s Food Guidance

1950s-1960s

1940s

1916

Food for Young Children

2005

1992

1970s

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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1.Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

  • Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs

  • Weight Management

  • Physical Activity

  • Food Groups To Encourage

  • Fats

  • Carbohydrates

  • Sodium and Potassium

  • Alcoholic Beverages

  • Food Safety

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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1. Background and purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

  • Document for policymakers, healthcare providers, nutritionists, and nutrition educators

  • Jointly developed by HHS/USDA every 5 years

  • Recommendations for an overall pattern of eating that can be adopted by the general public

  • Applicable to food preferences of different racial/ethnic groups, vegetarians, and other groups

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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1. Background and purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

  • Recommendations for Americans over 2 years of age

  • Emphasizes:

    • Eating a healthful diet to optimize growth and reduce risks of chronic diseases

    • Getting exercise

    • Meeting nutrient intakes (Dietary Reference Intakes) set by Institute of Medicine

  • Does not emphasize dietary supplements

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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1.Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

  • Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs

  • Weight Management

  • Physical Activity

  • Food Groups To Encourage

  • Fats

  • Carbohydrates

  • Sodium and Potassium

  • Alcoholic Beverages

  • Food Safety

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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2. Adequate nutrients within calorie needs

  • Eat a variety of nutrient-dense foods from different food groups (DASH eating plan)

  • Limit: Saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, alcohol

  • Key recommendations

    • People over 50 yrs: Vitamin B-12

    • Pregnancy: Iron, folic acid

    • Older and dark-skinned people: Vitamin D

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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2. Adequate nutrients within calorie needsWhat YOU can do

  • Eat breakfast each day based on the Dietary Guidelines eating pattern

    • Fortified cereals source of nutrients and whole grains

    • Encourages milk and fruit

    • Helps raise metabolism and curb appetite to control weight

    • Helps you perform better at school or work

  • Read food labels when shopping at the grocery store

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Use labels to make quick, informed choices

Check Calories

Sample label for macaroni and cheese

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005

http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/foodlab.html


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1.Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

  • Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs

  • Weight Management

  • Physical Activity

  • Food Groups To Encourage

  • Fats

  • Carbohydrates

  • Sodium and Potassium

  • Alcoholic Beverages

  • Food Safety

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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3. Weight management

  • Obesity linked to:

    • Early death

    • High blood pressure

    • Type 2 diabetes

    • Heart disease, stroke, lipid disorders

    • Gall bladder disease

    • Gout

    • Bone and muscle problems: osteoarthritis, hip disorder

    • Pulmonary and respiratory problems: asthma, sleep apnea

    • Abnormal growth acceleration: early puberty, menarche

    • Psychological and social problems: depression

    • Certain cancers (endometrial, breast, colon)

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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3. Weight management

  • Aim for slow, steady weight loss

    • Eat fewer calories

    • Maintain adequate nutrient intake

    • Increase physical activity

  • For obese adults, a modest weight loss (10 lbs) has health benefits

    • Eat 100 fewer calories/day lose 10 pounds/yr

  • Eat less added sugars, fats, alcohol, which provide calories but few or no essential nutrients

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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1991

Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS: 1991, 1996, 2003

1996

2003

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005

BMI 30, or about 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” person


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3. Weight managementWhat YOU can do

  • When dining out, choose smaller portions of main meals and beverages, and don’t purchase “super-size” items

    • Buy “regular” or “small” size items

    • Don’t be tempted by better deals

    • Share an entrée, take some home

  • Choose low fat foods when eating out

    • Lower fat terms: grilled, broiled, baked, steamed poached

    • Higher-fat terms: buttered, buttery, fried, breaded, creamed, in cream sauce, with gravy, au gratin, scalloped, hollandaise, pastry

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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3. Weight management

  • Body mass index (BMI) is more accurate approximation of body fat than weight alone

    • Overestimates fat in muscular people

    • Underestimates fat in people who lost muscle

    • Calculation: Weight (lbs) X 703

      Height (in)

  • BMI ranges

    • Healthy 19-24

    • Overweight 25-29

    • Obese 30 and above

  • BMI calculator:

    http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/bmi/calc-bmi.htm

    http://www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/bmicalc.htm

2

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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1.Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

  • Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs

  • Weight Management

  • Physical Activity

  • Food Groups To Encourage

  • Fats

  • Carbohydrates

  • Sodium and Potassium

  • Alcoholic Beverages

  • Food Safety

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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4. Physical activity

  • Physical activity reduces risk or helps manage

    • Overweight and obesity

    • Heart disease

    • Stroke

    • High blood pressure

    • Type 2 diabetes

    • Osteoporosis

    • Colon cancer

    • Mild to moderate depression/anxiety

    • Early mortality

  • American adults and children do not get enough exercise for a variety of reasons

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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4. Physical activity

  • 3 components to physical fitness

    • Cardiovascular conditioning: Walking, jogging, aerobic activities

    • Stretching exercises for flexibility: Yoga

    • Resistance exercises or calisthenics for muscle strength and endurance: Weight lifting

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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4. Physical activity

  • Adults

    • 30 min. of moderate activity, above usual activity, on most days: Reduce chronic disease risk

    • 60 min. of moderate to vigorous activity on most days while balancing caloric intake: Manage body weight and prevent weight gain

    • 60-90 min. of moderate activity daily, while balancing caloric intake: Sustain weight loss

  • Children & adolescents: 60 min. of activity on most, preferably all, days of the week

  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women, older adults: OK to exercise

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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4. Physical activityWhat YOU can do

  • Make small changes to increase your daily level of physical activity

    • Climbing stairs, dancing, choosing distant parking places

    • Set aside a time each day for exercise

  • Try to balance the calories in your food with the amount of activity you do in order to maintain a healthy weight

    • Replace TV watching with activities requiring more movement

    • Don’t reward yourself with food

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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1.Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

  • Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs

  • Weight Management

  • Physical Activity

  • Food Groups To Encourage

  • Fats

  • Carbohydrates

  • Sodium and Potassium

  • Alcoholic Beverages

  • Food Safety

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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9

9

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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5. Food groups to encourage. Fruits and Vegetables

  • 4 ½ cups (9 servings) of fruits and vegetables/day (for 2000 calorie diet)

  • Recommendation not changed, but expressed in cups instead of servings

  • Contain vitamin A (carotenoids), vitamin C, fiber, potassium, magnesium, other phytonutrients

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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5. Food groups to encourage. Vegetables

  • 2 ½ cups vegetables/day (for 2000 calorie diet)

  • Choose fresh, frozen, and canned

  • Minimize added butter and salt

  • Different vegetables are rich in different nutrients

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Vary your veggies

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Vary your veggies

  • Eat 2-1/2 cups of vegetables per day for a 2,000 calorie diet

  • Select from all 5 vegetable SUBGROUPS several times a week

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Subgroup 1: Dark green vegetables

  • Broccoli

  • Spinach

  • Most greens — spinach, collards, turnip greens, kale, beet, mustard greens

  • Green leaf and romaine lettuce

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Subgroup 2. Orange vegetables

  • Carrots

  • Sweet potatoes

  • Winter squash

  • Pumpkin

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Subgroup 3. Legumes

  • Dry beans and peas such as

    • Chickpeas

    • Pinto beans

    • Kidney beans

    • Black beans

    • Garbanzo beans

    • Soybeans

    • Split peas

    • Lentils

The USDA Food Guide includes dry beans, peas and soybeans in the meats and beans group as well as the vegetable group; however count them only in one group.

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Subgroup 4. Starchy vegetables

  • White potatoes

  • Corn

  • Green peas

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Subgroup 5. Other vegetables

  • Tomatoes

  • Cabbage

  • Celery

  • Cucumber

  • Lettuce

  • Onions

  • Peppers

  • Green beans

  • Cauliflower

  • Mushrooms

  • Summer squash

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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For optimum health, scientists say eat a rainbow of colors. Your plate should look like a box of Crayolas.”

~Janice M. Horowitz,TIME, January 12, 2002

Eat a rainbow

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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5. Food groups to encourage. Fruits

  • 2 cups fruits/day (for 2000 calorie diet)

  • Whole fruits (fresh, frozen, canned, dried) have more fiber than fruit juice

  • Orange juice is good source of vitamin C, potassium, and calcium and vitamin D if fortified

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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5. Food groups to encourage. Dairy

  • Adults and children 9 years and older: 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products

  • Children 2-8 years: 2 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products

  • Yogurt, lactose-free milk (or lactase), cheese

  • Non-dairy eaters should choose alternative sources of calcium (fortified cereals & juice, seafood, soy foods)

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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5. Food groups to encourage. Whole grains

  • Eat 3 or more ounce-equivalents of whole grain products per day

  • Half your grains should come from whole grains

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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What is a whole grain?

  • Foods made with the entire grain seed (kernel). If kernel has been cracked, crushed, or flaked, it must retain nearly the same relative proportions of bran, germ, and endosperm as the original grain

  • FDA health claim: Whole grain food must contain 51% or more whole grain ingredients by weight per reference amount and be low in fat and cholesterol

Bran

Endosperm

Germ

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Whole grains contain more than just fiber

http://www.bellinstitute.com/nutrition/index.htm

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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5. Health benefits of whole grains

  • Coronary heart disease

  • Type 2 diabetes

  • Colon cancer

  • Weight control

Toasted corn and bulgur salad

http://www.wheatfoods.org/

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Finding whole grains when shopping

  • Check ingredient list for a “whole” grain

  • Don’t rely on color

Good Source A half serving (8 g) of whole grain

Excellent Source A full serving (16 g) of whole grain

100%/Excellent A full serving (16 g) & all grains are whole

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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What counts as an “ounce equivalent” serving of a whole grain food?

  • 1 slice whole wheat bread (16 g of whole grain)

  • ½ cup of cooked cereal, rice, pasta

  • 1 cup dry flake cereal

  • ¼ cup dense cereal (granola)

  • 1 ½ cups puffed cereals

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Amaranth grain food?

Barley

Brown rice

Buckwheat

Bulgur

Emmer

Farro

Grano

Kamut

Millet

Oatmeal and whole oats

Popcorn

Quinoa

Sorghum

Spelt

Teff

Triticale

Whole corn

Whole-grain pasta

Whole rye

Whole wheat

Whole-wheat couscous

Wild rice

Whole grains are consumed in the U.S. as a single food or an ingredient in a product

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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5 grain food?. Food groups to encourageWhat YOU can do

  • Eat fruits and vegetables for a total of at least four and one-half cups (9 servings) each day

    • Pack fruits and vegetables as snack during the day

  • Choose low-fat or fat-free milk, yogurt, and other dairy products

    • Have vanilla yogurt with fruit instead of ice cream for dessert

  • Try to eat at least half of your grains as whole grain foods, or about 3 ounce-equivalents/day

    • Try a new whole grain food each month

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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1. grain food?Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

  • Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs

  • Weight Management

  • Physical Activity

  • Food Groups To Encourage

  • Fats

  • Carbohydrates

  • Sodium and Potassium

  • Alcoholic Beverages

  • Food Safety

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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6. Fats grain food?

  • Total fat: 20-35% of daily calories

    • Children 2-3 years: 30-35% of calories

    • Children and adolescents 4-18 yrs: 25-35 of calories

    • Mainly poly- and monounsaturated fats: fish, nuts, vegetable oils

  • Saturated fat: Less than 10% of daily calories

  • Cholesterol: Less than 300 mg/day

  • Trans fats: As low as possible

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Fats grain food?What YOU Can Do

  • Choose “healthy fats” such as olive oil and canola oil

    • Use canola margarine and cook with canola oil

    • Use olive oil salad dressings

  • Avoid “unhealthy fats” such as saturated and trans fat

    • Check nutrition labels and ingredient lists

    • Choose low-fat dairy products and lean meats

  • Eat at least 2 seafood meals each week

    • Source of omega-3 fats

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Where do grain food?Trans fats come from?

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Saturated fat: Comparing different foods grain food?

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Sources of Omega-3 fats grain food?

Values are grams per 3-oz serving

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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1. grain food?Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

  • Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs

  • Weight Management

  • Physical Activity

  • Food Groups To Encourage

  • Fats

  • Carbohydrates

  • Sodium and Potassium

  • Alcoholic Beverages

  • Food Safety

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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7. Carbohydrates grain food?

  • Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, and whole grains often

  • Aim for 14 g. of fiber/1000 calories

  • Choose legumes several times a week

    • Excellent source of fiber

    • Part of vegetable and meat/beans group

  • Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars or caloric sweeteners

  • Choose sugar- and starch-containing foods and beverages less frequently for good oral health

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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7. Carbohydrates. grain food?What YOU Can Do

  • Choose more healthy snacks that are low in fat and sugar and high in fiber

    • Snack on fruits and cut-up vegetables

    • Limit foods high in added sugars

      • Check ingredient lists for added sugars: high fructose corn syrup, sucrose, corn sweetener, corn syrup

      • Regular soft drinks, candy, cakes, cookies, pies

        • Major sources of added sugar

        • Should be part of discretionary calories

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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1. grain food?Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

  • Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs

  • Weight Management

  • Physical Activity

  • Food Groups To Encourage

  • Fats

  • Carbohydrates

  • Sodium and Potassium

  • Alcoholic Beverages

  • Food Safety

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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8. Sodium and potassium grain food?

  • Choose and prepare foods with little salt

    • Consume less than 2,300 mg (1 tsp salt) of sodium/day

    • Check food labels for sodium: Foods with less than 140 mg sodium (5% DV) are low in salt

  • Consume potassium-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables

  • People with high blood pressure or at risk

    • Less than 1,500 mg sodium day

    • Meet potassium recommendation (4,700 mg/day)

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Sodium sources grain food?

  • Processed food 77%

  • Naturally occurring 12%

  • Adding it at the table 6%

  • Adding it while cooking 5%

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Cucumbers vs. pickles grain food?

Sodium 2 mg/cup 1,987 mg/cup

Potassium 162 mg/cup 180 mg/cup

USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 17

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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1. grain food?Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

  • Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs

  • Weight Management

  • Physical Activity

  • Food Groups To Encourage

  • Fats

  • Carbohydrates

  • Sodium and Potassium

  • Alcoholic Beverages

  • Food Safety

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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9. Alcoholic Beverages grain food?

  • Drink sensibly and moderately

    • Women: 1 drink/day

    • Men: 2 drinks/day

  • Avoid

    • Addiction

    • Pregnant and lactating women

    • Children and adolescents

    • Taking medications

    • Driving, operating machines

1 Drink is:

12 oz. beer

5 oz wine

1.5 oz liquor

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Risks grain food?

Liver cirrhosis

Inflammation of pancreas

High blood pressure

Stroke

Some cancers

Injury

Benefits

Relieves stress

Lowers risk of heart disease

In middle-aged and older adults, 1-2 drinks/day associated with lowest mortality

Alcoholic beverages have calories

5 oz wine 100 cal

12 oz regular beer 150 cal

1.5 oz 80-proof 100 cal distilled spirits

9. Alcoholic Beverages

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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1. grain food?Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

  • Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs

  • Weight Management

  • Physical Activity

  • Food Groups To Encourage

  • Fats

  • Carbohydrates

  • Sodium and Potassium

  • Alcoholic Beverages

  • Food Safety

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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10. Food Safety grain food?

  • Consumers at greatest risk

    • Infants and young children

    • Pregnant women

    • Older adults

    • Those with weakened immune systems

  • Foods of special concern

    • Unpasteurized dairy and juices

    • Partially cooked or raw eggs

    • Raw or undercooked meats

    • Raw sprouts

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Food Safety grain food?

Other messages:

  • Clean refrigerators and check temperature

  • Do not wash raw meat and poultry

  • Wash fresh fruits and vegetables just before cooking or eating

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Protocol for washing fresh fruits and vegetables grain food?(Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee)

  • Remove and discard outer leaves (lettuce, cabbage) before washing

  • Wash all fruits and vegetables, including organically grown and home-grown ones, just before cooking or eating

  • Wash under running potable water

  • When possible, scrub fruits and vegetables with a clean scrub brush or with hands

  • Dry fruits and vegetables

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Finding Your Way to a Healthier You grain food?

  • Feel better today – stay healthy for tomorrow

  • Make smart choices from every food group

  • Mix up your choices within each food group

  • Find your balance between food and physical activity

  • Get the most nutrition out of your calories

  • To know the facts…use the label

  • Play it safe with food

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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Communicating grain food?with and not to consumers

  • Speak their language

  • Tell them how to do it

    • Make advice specific, manageable, and actionable

    • Instead of “eat less fat,” say “when eating out, choose steamed, grilled, or broiled foods instead of fried”

  • Take a positive approach

    • Help them fit appropriate portion size of favorite foods into balanced, healthful eating plan

  • Personalize advice

    • Account for tastes, lack of time, convenience

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005

IFIC Foundation. Food Insight. Jan/Feb 2005


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Acknowledgements grain food?

Thanks to the following for providing images or information used on some slides

  • Alice Henneman, Univ. of Nebraska Cooperative Extension in Lancaster County

  • Linda Bobroff, University of Florida

  • Anne Hoisington, Oregon State University Extension

  • Ruth Litchfield, Iowa State University Extension

  • The Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition, Minneapolis

Dietary Guidelines

for Americans - 2005


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