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Sustainable Forest Policies/Programs. Bill Rockwell of The Plum Line MSU - Forestry 466 - Leefers Natural Resource Planning & Policy April 9, 2001. Public Forestry Goals. Strategic Materials Economic Stability Public-Goods Provision Social Equity. Market Failure. Monopoly Social Bias

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Sustainable Forest Policies/Programs

Bill Rockwell of The Plum Line

MSU - Forestry 466 - Leefers

Natural Resource Planning &Policy April 9, 2001

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Public Forestry Goals

  • Strategic Materials

  • Economic Stability

  • Public-Goods Provision

  • Social Equity

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Market Failure

  • Monopoly

  • Social Bias

  • Externalities

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Public Methods

  • Direct Production

  • Subsidy

  • Technical Assistance

  • Regulation

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Public Production

  • National Forests

  • (etc)

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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National Forest Management

  • RPA/MFMA Plans (1980s)

  • New Perspectives (1990)

  • Ecosystem Management

  • Clinton Era

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Regulation

  • Clean Water Act - BMPs

  • Chemicals (FIFRA, etc.)

  • Endangered Species Act(s)

  • State Forest Practice Acts

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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State Forest Practice Acts

  • Regeneration

  • State Water Laws

  • State ESAs

  • Clearcutting

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Government Failure

  • Political Influence

  • Special Interests

  • Corruption

  • Monopoly

  • Inefficiency

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Private Methods

  • Direct Production /

  • Competition

  • Collusion

  • Cooperation

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Private Methods

  • Direct Production /

  • Competition

  • Collusion

  • Cooperation

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Private Cooperation

  • Voluntary Standards

  • Self-Regulation

  • Public Relations

  • Research / Development

  • Lobbying

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Private Methods

  • Direct Production /

  • Competition

  • Collusion

  • Cooperation

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Certification Systems

  • Forest Stewardship Council

  • ISO

  • Canadian Standards Assn

  • Sustainable Forestry Initiative

  • Tree Farm System

  • Green Tag

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Historical Developments

  • International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) proposal (mid-1980s)

  • Failure of tropical log import bans in Europe spurs alternative measures (mid-to-late 1980s)

  • FSC support by European buyer’s groups (early 1990s)


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Historical Developments (cont.)

  • UN Conference on Environment & Development (Rio de Janeiro,1992)

  • International regional processes to address UNCED with “criteria & indicators”

    • Montreal Process

    • Helsinki Protocol

    • Tarapoto Process for the Amazon


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Historical Developments (cont.)

  • Forest industry initiatives (1990s)

    • AF&PA Sustainable Forestry Initiative

    • Finnish Forest Certification System

    • Imported Timber Group of New Zealand

    • Malaysian Timber Industry Board

  • PEFC (Pan-European Forest Certification)

  • Mutual Recognition


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Dimensions of Systems

  • Scale & scope of application

    • scale - size

    • scope - forest, all wood, marketing, add-ons

  • Performance or system standards (mix)

  • Mandatory or voluntary

  • First, second, or third party

  • Accreditation

  • Mutual Recognition


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Forest Stewardship Council

  • Basically performance standards

  • Product certification

  • Retail advantage

  • Chain of custody

  • Buyers groups

  • Critical mass

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Forest Stewardship Council (2)

  • Two US Certifiers

    • SmartWood (.org) (Rainforest Alliance)

    • Scientific Certification Systems (.com)

  • Niche industry markets

  • Foundation $$$$

  • Regional Standards

  • Members & WWF/World Bank


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System Comparative AnalysisForest Stewardship Council (FSC)

  • “well-managed” certification

  • not all of operation

  • wood only(+social & ILO? labor standards)

  • third-party only

  • attempts to control markets

  • “price premium”

  • certify foresters for small landowners

  • forest cooperatives


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ISO

  • ISO - international organization of national standard-setting bodies

  • “screw threads”

  • ISO 9000 - quality system standards

  • ISO 14000 - environmental quality system standards

  • No industry-specifics (except ISO14061)

  • Standard standards

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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ISO 14000

  • International system

  • System standard (NO content component)

  • Basis for CSA and SFI

  • Usually matched with a content program

  • ISO 14001 - system specification

  • ISO 14010/11/12 - audit standards

  • Product labeling standards (etc)


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System Comparative AnalysisISO 14001

  • system certification

  • “all controlled or influenced”

  • all of operation

  • basically second- or third-party

  • limited labeling

  • own policies

  • based on analysis


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Canadian Standards Assn

  • Canadian leadership

  • Forest industry, government, & CSA

  • ISO 14000 based

  • Provincial crown-land regulation

  • Very demanding

  • Z808 (guide) & Z809 (specification)

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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System Comparative AnalysisCanadian Standards Association

  • ISO-based for forest (see above)

  • some performance standards

  • big on public involvement

  • basically second- or third-party

  • very detailed


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Sustainable Forestry Initiative

  • Mandatory for AF&PA members

  • Licensees

  • Loosely ISO-14000 based

  • SFI 2000 - basic standard

  • SFI 2001 & 2002 - audit standards

  • SFI 2003 - Core/voluntary indicators

  • Expert Review Panel

  • Sustainable Forestry Board

  • Revision of Standards

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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System Comparative AnalysisSustainable Forestry Initiative

  • ISO-based for forest (see above)

  • some performance standards

  • own lands, purchased wood, research, public outreach, & state organization

  • first, second, or third-party

  • product label (nearly?) ready

  • no accreditation (yet?)

  • consensus standard in the future?


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Current Developments

  • FSC Regional Standards & Problems

  • “Home Depot”, etc.

  • Explosion of ISO, CSA, & SFI audits

    • SFI in Canada

    • multiple audits & multiple-systems audits

  • SFI & Tree Farm

  • Mutual Recognition

  • Government Role - e.g., FSC/Ontario

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Base of Experience

  • CSA development - Michigan state forest

  • with FSC “pre-scoping”

  • ISO lead auditor training & planning

  • Six SFI audits

  • - one also FSC Certified

  • - one state forest

  • Four SFI system developments

  • Forest plan with integrated framework

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Audience

  • Conscience

  • Friends

  • Owners/Investors

  • Neighbors

  • Regulators

  • YOUR Market

  • Trade Restrictors

  • Retailers

  • Consumers

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Audience / Motivation

  • Conscience

  • Friends

  • Owners/Investors

  • Neighbors

  • Regulators

  • YOUR Market

  • Trade Restrictors

  • Retailers

  • Consumers

  • Quality

  • Social acceptance

  • Efficiency

  • Friendliness

  • Political acceptance

  • Customer needs

  • Discrimination

  • Simplicity

  • ????????

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Consumers(????????)

  • Varies by:

    • product

    • consumer

    • country

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Consumers(????????)

  • Some want:

    • label

    • crediblity

    • cheap

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Consumers(????????)

  • Translates:

    • any system

    • yet to be seen

    • efficiency

  • Some want:

    • label

    • crediblity

    • cheap

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Retailers / Simplicity(explanations; inventory; volume)

  • Caught in the muddle

  • CSA, SFI - national; mutual recognition?

  • FSC - international; need chain-of-custody / inventory control

  • ISO - international, generally known;

    can be linked to other inputs

  • Volume - directly related to efficiency

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Trade Restrictors / Discrimination (verifiability; product characteristics)

  • CSA, SFI - national (+/-);

    - mutual recognition?

  • FSC - parallel promotion systems;

    - product differentiation

  • ISO - international standard;

    - handle all concerns with one system

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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YOUR Market / Customer Needs(what market?; their needs)

  • CSA - ISO crosswalk

  • FSC - chain of custody

  • ISO - process/product integration

  • SFI - flexibility

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Regulators / Political Acceptance(vs: regs for all; spec status for some)

  • Caught in the muddle

  • CSA - demanding (duplicate?) system

  • FSC - some ENGOs; certified foresters;

    regional performance standards (?)

  • ISO - pure & known; little fixed content

  • SFI - state implementation committtees; industry & Tree Farm support; research, education, & “hotlines”

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Neighbors / Friendliness(address concerns; involve them)

  • CSA - thorough; much public involvement

  • FSC - some involvement of interest groups;

    appeal of certified foresters

  • ISO - can address any environmental concern

  • SFI - designed around most pressing concerns;

    supports research, education, & “hotlines”;

    & link to American Tree Farm System

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Owners/Investors / Efficiency(lower costs; better markets;improve management; avoid hassles)

  • CSA - demanding system

  • FSC - management review; plantations; cost; grants; stable?

  • ISO - demanding; process improvements

  • SFI - flexible; whole wood system;

    - second-party certifications;

    - availability of third-party certifiers?

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Friends / Social Acceptance(social conscience; leadership)

  • CSA - home-grown, demanding

  • FSC - very “green” & “social”

  • ISO - very technical; known

  • SFI - home-grown; supports research, education, & “hotlines”

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Conscience / Quality(pride, philosophy, values)

  • CSA - very thorough system

  • FSC - extra-societal force

  • ISO - systems approach

  • SFI - industry responsibility;

    ISO conformance

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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Know thyself.

Bill Rockwell - The Plum Line


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