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天体物理学 I : 授業の内容 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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天体物理学 I : 授業の内容. 天文学は天体からの光を研究する学問です。 そこでこの授業では、「光」をどう扱うかの基礎を学びます。 授業計画は、 A.水素原子  B.エネルギー準位  C.熱平衡  D.線吸収  E.連続吸収   F.光のインテンシティ G.黒体輻射 H.等級  I.色等級図   J.光の伝達式 I  K.光の伝達式 II L.星のスペクトル という順で進めます。 最後まで行くと、星のスペクトルがどんな仕組みで決まっているかが判る、 というのが目標です。 AからEまでは光の吸収に関係する物理の話です。Fでは光の強さをきちん

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天体物理学 I : 授業の内容

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Optical Depth

(Source Function) S

J

HP

http://www.ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/kisohp/STAFF/nakada/intro-j.html


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S

S

1 Optical Depth

II

I

dN

S

C

C=/S


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/ S C = d

/ S

=


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1

1/1


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2122

1

2

2


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I

II

C

TC

T=expC=Texp

C=

I=-Id

eT


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/


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/

/

I


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k I

I = -I kd

d I(x) /dx = - I k +

d I(x) /kdx = - I+ (/ k)

k dx d Optical Depth ()

/ k Source Function()

equation of radiative transfer


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I I


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Source function s

Source Function() S

(x) (,T) (,T)

() = () / () (,T)

1

[I(x) (,T)] d

I(x+dx) =I(x)- I(x) (,T) dx(,T)

I(x) [I(x) (,T)] d

I(x)

(,T)


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I(x)=(T,)

I(x+dx)=(T,)[(T,) (,T)]d

() (T,)

()

(,T)

2

I (x)I (x+dx)=(T,)

(T,) (,T)

(,T)(T,)

(,T)

(,T)

(,T)(T,)

dI()/d+I ()=[()] LTE


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i I

I(x)

I (x=0)

S


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/ o

0


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.

(i)

1995 ApJ 450, 74-89 Forster, Rich and McCarthy

N


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DNa

(. /D ) cm2DAcm2

DNa

DNa

KVV/c=1.8A/5980A, V=90km/sec

( / ) = e

/ /


Ii i x 0 0

ii I(x=0) = 0

S()

I=0

I(x,)

S()

x=0


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[S()=B(T) ]

SB

ii

0.656


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G

nm

nm

nm

nm


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LL

L

C

X

LLL <<

(2)

L L

L

C


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0.5

0.1

0

0.3

0.6

0.7

1

ii

,0.60.7

1.000 1.155 2.000 5.759 19.107

() 0.100 0.116 0.200 0.576 1.911


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+


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ii


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1/

/cos


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ii


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Brightness temperature t b

brightness temperature Tb

Reyleigh-Jeans

Tc c,


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b=Tc

Tb

Tb


Iii i x 0 io

iiiI(x=0) =Io()

S (x)B(T)

Io()

I()

I(x,) = Io() exp ( ()(x)dx ) = Io() exp [ ](i)

I(x,) =S(t) exp{ (t)} dt (ii)

I () = Io() exp[(x,)]S(1)exp{ (1)} d1

= Io() exp[] + B(T)[1exp()]

() Io()+ B(T)

Io() + [B(T) Io() ]


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(chromosphere)

Tchrom

Teff

Teff

6,400

Teff

30,000

6,250

9,800

7,300

5,950


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1

1/1

//

(/


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2122

/ [1-/] / [1-/]

[1-/] [1-/]

1

2

2

[1-/]N


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lim [1-/]N /

C1/

1/

// (/

lim [1-/]N /


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1/

[]/ cos/ cos

[ / cos]

[ / cos]

/cos


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/[cos/]

[/4]

[cos/]/4

[cos/][/4] [ / cos]

[/4] [/ cos]


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[/4] [/ cos]

[/4] [/ cos]

[/ 4]/ cos W m-2/str

[/ cos] W m-2/str

W m-2/str


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