Organization and governance of american education
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ORGANIZATION AND GOVERNANCE OF AMERICAN EDUCATION. Chapter Fourteen: The Federal Level of Policy Making Presented by Jacqueline Leedy -Chamberlain Professor: Dr. Lauren Larsen. Ch. 14: The Federal Level of Policy Making.

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ORGANIZATION AND GOVERNANCE OF AMERICAN EDUCATION

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Organization and governance of american education

ORGANIZATION AND GOVERNANCE OF AMERICAN EDUCATION

Chapter Fourteen: The Federal Level of Policy Making

Presented by Jacqueline Leedy-Chamberlain

Professor: Dr. Lauren Larsen


Organization and governance of american education

Ch. 14: The Federal Level of Policy Making

In this chapter, we will review the growth of federal power over education. While Washington previously contributed little to education, it now provides a plethora of programs and funding to schools across the nation. Of course, we will also discuss as we have previously, how Federal involvement in education has grown exponentially since the passage of NCLB.


Overview of federal educational governance

Overview of Federal Educational Governance

  • Kennedy and Johnson pass the Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 1965 relying on the power “to tax and spend for the general welfare.” Monies are governed by strict regulations.

LegalFramework

The federal government was largely absent from education until the middle of the 20th Century, when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik. After which, reliance on Article I Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution was used.

Ch. 14: The Federal Level of Policy Making


Organization and governance of american education

Overview of Federal Educational Governance, cont.

Scope of Federal Authority

  • Since the scope of the federal authority over public education is narrow, the government has moved cautiously in passing legislation governing education.

Major Policy Actors at National Level

Governmental Policy Actors at the Federal Level

Individuals: President, U.S. Secretary of Education, Chairs of the education committees in Congress

Groups: U.S. Department of Education, Congress, Federal courts

2. Major Interest Groups Seeking to Influence Education Policy

Education Interest Groups: American Association of School Administrators, American Federation of Teachers, National Education Association, National School Boards Association

Business Interest Groups: Business Roundtable, Committee for Economic Development, National Association of Manufacturers, U.S. Chamber of Commerce

3. Major Foundations and Think Tanks Interested in Education

Foundations: Annie Casey Foundation, Carnegie Corporation, Danforth Foundation, Ford Foundation, MacArthur Foundation, Spencer Foundation

Think Tanks: American Enterprise Institute, Brookings Institution, Economic Policy Institute, Heritage Foundation

Ch. 14: The Federal Level of Policy Making


A history of federal involvement in education

A History of Federal Involvement in Education

Early Semi-Silence of Washington

Smith-Hughes Act of 1917

1946- National School Lunch Act

Ch. 14: The Federal Level of Policy Making


A history of federal involvement in education1

A History of Federal Involvement in Education

Ch. 14: The Federal Level of Policy Making


The impact of federal involvement on politics

The Impact of Federal Involvement on Politics

Ch. 14: The Federal Level of Policy Making


The impact of federal involvement on politics1

The Impact of Federal Involvement on Politics

Federal Courts and Politics

  • Federal court decisions influence educational policy.

  • Any court decision involves settling a dispute between two or more parties, which is why both parties want certain judges appointed to federal courts.

  • Judiciary is not necessarily neutral when making decisions. For example from 1954-1980, federal courts repeatedly upheld desegregation policies, then in 1992, the Supreme Court ruled that if segregation is caused by demographics, districts can maintain segregated schools!

Ch. 14: The Federal Level of Policy Making


No child left behind

No Child Left Behind

  • Many scholars and political scientists have argued that NCLB dramatically changed federal education policy. One such political scientist, Patrick McGuinn argued that NCLB differs from ESEA because:

  • Broadens the scope of federal education policy

  • Shifts federal education policy from focus on inputs to outputs

  • Is far more prescriptive than previous laws


History of nclb

History of NCLB

Timeline

1983-Nation at Risk published

1987-Gallup polls showed 87% of Americans believed federal government should require state and local educational authorities to meet minimum national standards

1989-G.W. Bush adopted 6 national goals that did not include national standards

1994-Clinton backed Goals 2000

2002-NCLB passes by Congress

Ch. 14: The Federal Level of Policy Making


Major provisions of nclb

Major Provisions of NCLB

  • Reduce “achievement gap” between the academic performance of Euro-American and Asian American compared to African American and Hispanic students.

  • Requires states receiving federal funds under ESEA to set up standards-based testing program.

  • Teachers must become “highly qualified.”

  • Testing overhauls which are extensive, and require schools to make AYP.

  • Severe penalties enforced for schools who fail to perform.

Ch. 14: The Federal Level of Policy Making


Organization and governance of american education

NCLB

  • Achievement gap is now out in the open.

  • Forces schools and districts to monitor the performance of subgroups.

  • Will permit the development of database of student test scores.

  • Discourages districts and states from hiring under-qualified teachers.

  • Law makes it harder for educators to neglect professional responsibility.

  • Law has never been funded at levels originally promised.

  • AYP reflects only the absolute scores made by children (no value-added component).

  • Unrealistic goals for U.S. schools (i.e., 100% proficiency in reading and math by 2013).

  • Teaching to the test, other subject matter gets neglected.

  • This narrows the curriculum which may raise test scores at expense of providing quality education.

Strengths

Weaknesses

Ch. 14: The Federal Level of Policy Making


Conclusion

Conclusion

Since the mid-19th Century, the federal government has moved from playing a minor role in education, to playing a much larger and more powerful role. Congress, as well as the federal courts have all influenced education policy, and the trend seems that it will only continue with the passage of NCLB.


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