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Introduction to Plant & Soil Science. Objectives:. A. Define Horticulture and its related fields; B. Identify the various roles of plants in everyday life; C. Identify agriculturally important plants, and explain their uses; D. Describe how horticulture is related to science and technology.

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Objectives
Objectives:

A. Define Horticulture and its related fields;

B. Identify the various roles of plants in everyday life;

C. Identify agriculturally important plants, and explain their uses;

D. Describe how horticulture is related to science and technology.


A define horticulture and its related fields
A. Define Horticulture and its related fields;

  • Horticulture originates from Latin

    hortus= gardening

    culturea= cultivation

  • Together they literally translate:

    “Garden cultivation”




Fruit production
Fruit Production

Pomology =

Fruit Production

  • Propagation of fruit trees, vines, plants

  • Harvest of Fruit

  • Marketing


Vegetable production
Vegetable Production

Olericulture = Vegetable Production

  • Vegetable Production

    • Home Gardens

    • Large Scale Gardens

  • Harvest

  • Marketing


Floriculture
Floriculture

Floriculture=

Production of Flowers

a. Cut Flowers

b. Bedding Plants

c. Potted Plants

  • Marketing

  • Florists


Landscape horticulture
Landscape Horticulture

Landscape Construction & Design

  • Irrigation systems

  • Plant Installation

  • Flower Beds

  • Landscape Design


Turf

Turf =

Ground cover

  • Turf Farms

  • Installation

  • Golf courses

  • Sport’s fields


Arboriculture
Arboriculture

Arboriculture=

Cultivation & Care of trees, shrubs, & Vines

  • Production

  • Tree Pruning and Care

  • As part of landscape Maintenance


B identify the various roles of plants in everyday life
B. Identify the various roles of plants in everyday life;

  • Meeting basic human needs

    • Food

    • Clothing

    • Shelter


Roles of plants
Roles of Plants

  • Plants are direct or indirect sources of these three needs

    • Direct Plant Source – Plant or plant products are used by humans

    • Indirect Plant Source – Plants are used as animal feed and the animals or animal products are used by humans


Food

  • Solid and liquid material we eat

  • Provides the nutrients we need to grow and live healthy lives

  • Americans expect their food to be:

    • Readily available

    • Wholesome/promote health

    • Convenient/Easy-to-use


Clothing
Clothing

  • Includes the garments, accessories and ornaments we ware

  • Garments are the most important area of clothing

    • Garments – worn to cover and protect the body and give it a certain appearance

      • Exe. skirt, jeans, shirt

    • Accessories - worn to supplement basic clothing

      • Exe. tie, belt, scarf

    • Ornaments – Worn for a certain appearance or to represent status

      • Exe. rings and pins

  • Clothing made from natural fiber can come from both direct and indirect plant sources.

    • Direct – Cotton, Flax

    • Indirect - Wool


Shelter
Shelter

  • Protect us from the elements and from harm

  • Our homes and the items that make our homes comfortable

  • Wood products are widely used in building construction


C identify agriculturally important plants and explain their uses
C. Identify agriculturally important plants, and explain their uses;

Field Crops

  • Plants grown in large fields

  • Used for:

    • Oil

    • Fiber

    • Grain

    • Similar products

  • Often grown for their seed, but other parts may be used

  • Example: corn, wheat, cotton, barley, safflower, soybean


C identify agriculturally important plants and explain their uses1
C. Identify agriculturally important plants, and explain their uses;

Horticultural Crops

  • Grown for food, comfort, and beauty

  • In some cases appears to overlap field crops

  • Ornamental Horticulture

    • Growing and using plants for their beauty

    • Includes Floriculture and Landscape Horticulture

  • Food Crop Horticulture

    • Growing plants for food

    • Includes Olericulture (Vegetable Crops) and Pomology (Fruit and Nuts)


C identify agriculturally important plants and explain their uses2
C. Identify agriculturally important plants, and explain their uses;

Forestry

  • Growing frees and producing wood products

    • Lumber, paper, plywood, furniture, and similar products

    • Also includes specialty products like maple syrup, rosin, and oil

  • Involves Native Forests and Tree Farming


D describe how horticulture is related to science and technology
D. Describe how horticulture is related to science and technology.

Science:

  • Successful Horticulture is an application of science

  • Growing plants takes more than just a daily watering

  • Must understand:

    • Effects of heat, light, and photosynthesis

    • Cell division, osmosis, transpiration, etc…


Science + Technology + Plant Production technology.

= THE HORTICULTURE INDUSTRY


Development of agriculture and society

Development of Agriculture and Society technology.

Plant & Soil Science


Civilization
Civilization technology.

In the beginning, Nomads followed herds of animals and gathered food. When they discovered that they could seed grain and harvest it, they no longer needed to follow a food source. This allowed people to live in one place, thus the beginning of civilization.


Origins of grain
Origins of Grain technology.

Wheat = Egypt, Iran, Turkey

Corn = Mexico

Explorers would bring wheat to North America, and return with corn.


Agriculture 250 years ago
Agriculture 250 Years Ago technology.

95% of the US Population Farmed

Each Farmer produced enough feed to feed and clothe 3 people

Most of the work was done by hand- some animal power was used

People used the barter system to exchange goods and services.


250 years ago
250 Years Ago technology.

  • Families were self-sufficient by producing their own

    • Tobacco, sugar cane, rice, and cotton

    • Clothing

    • Soap

    • Candles

    • Medicines

    • Shoes

    • Farming Implements


Significant events 250 years ago
Significant Events- 250 Years Ago technology.

  • 1793- Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin.

    • The cotton gin helped remove seeds form the short staple of cotton, and the demand for cotton grew. Cotton was used in the US and exported as well!


Agriculture 200 years ago
Agriculture 200 Years Ago technology.

92% of the population still farming

Each farmer produced enough to feed and clothe four people

The barter system was used mostly for trading soap, candles, medicines, and shoes

Families were becoming less self-sufficient


Significant events 200 years ago
Significant Events- 200 Years Ago technology.

1831- Cyrus McCormick developed the mechanical reaper. Mechanical reaper was the forerunner of the grain combine and was used for wheat.

1837- John Deere began manufacturing plows. With this invention the fertile ground could be plowed under and cultivated


Agriculture 150 years ago
Agriculture 150 Years Ago technology.

90% of the population farmed

Each farmer produced enough for

five others


Significant events 150 years ago
Significant Events- 150 Years Ago technology.

1855- Michigan and Pennsylvania established the first state agriculture colleges. Justin Morrill a senator from Vermont introduced a bill to provide funds to establish schools to teach practical methods of producing food and fiber. These schools would also be conducting scientific research.


Significant events 150 years ago1
Significant Events- 150 Years Ago technology.

  • 1862- President Lincoln created the first Department of Agriculture. (USDA)

    • The Morrill Act passed providing land to each state to build a college for common people. The purpose was to teach agriculture and mechanical arts.


Significant events 150 years ago2
Significant Events- 150 Years Ago technology.

1869- Transcontinental railroad was completed.

1872- Congress passed the Hatch Act. This allowed states with land grant colleges to establish experiment stations.

1875- The first grain silos were built

1881- Hybrid Corn, which is produced by crossing different varieties was introduced


Agriculture 100 years ago
Agriculture 100 Years Ago technology.

Only 50% of people farmed

Each farmer produced enough for seven others

Gasoline tractors were introduced

Banks began loaning money to farmers to purchase land and equipment

Farm families produced most of their own food and wood, and consumers had more needs.


Significant events 100 years ago
Significant Events- 100 Years Ago technology.

1914- The Smith-Lever Act was passed by congress.

1917- The Smith-Hughes Act was established. This allowed agriculture to be taught in high schools.

1933- The Farm Credit Administration was established

1940- The school milk program was initiated

1947- A general agreement on tariffs and trade was negotiated


Agriculture 50 years ago
Agriculture 50 Years Ago technology.

  • 30% of the US Population was farming

  • Each farmer produced enough for 11 others

  • Gas tractor was in general use, horses still outnumbered tractors as the main source of farm power

  • Banks provided capital to farmers. Farmers tried to avoid borrowing because of massive farm losses and foreclosures in the 20’s and 30’s.


Significant events 50 years ago
Significant Events 50 Years Ago technology.

1959- The mechanical tomato harvester was developed.

1964- The national food stamp program was passed.

1991- More farmers used Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

1993- Passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)


Agriculture today
Agriculture Today technology.

Less than 2% of US population is involved with production agriculture

Each farmer produces enough for 148 others

Many gov’t programs are available to help stabilize production and processing, insure supplies, limit soil erosion and regulation.

For every dollar produced by agriculture, 6-8 other dollars are generated in a community


Significant events
Significant Events technology.

The US supplies ½ of the grain sold on the world market

The number of farmers have declined, but related agriculture jobs has increased


Introduction to utah s agricultural crops

Introduction to Utah’s Agricultural Crops technology.

Mr. Wilson

Uintah High School


Student learning objectives
Student Learning Objectives technology.

As a result of this lesson, the student will …

Objective #1 Appreciate the Diversity of Agriculture Production in Utah.

Objective #2 Understand the Scope and Value of Agriculture Production in Utah.




Can you believe it
Can you believe it? technology.

Utah, in 2010, agriculture generated

$1.5BILLION

To Utah’s economy.


Top utah commodities
Top Utah Commodities technology.

The top four crop commodities

for Utah are hay, barley, wheat,.

Fruit crops

The top four livestock

commodities are cattle, sheep/lambs, hogs and dairy.





Number of farms and ranches
Number of Farms and Ranches technology.

1. Texas

2. Missouri

3. Iowa

4. Kentucky

5. Minnesota

Utah’s Rank 36th


Land in farms and ranches
Land in Farms and Ranches technology.

1. Texas

2. Montana

3. Kansas

4. Nebraska

5. New Mexico

Utah’s Rank 28th


Utah s rank in other areas
Utah’s Rank in Other Areas technology.

Mink Production 2nd

Trout Production 6th

Honey Production 24th


How important is agriculture in utah
How important is technology.agriculture in Utah?

Let’s explore this:

Complete the Utah Plant Statistics assignment.


Agriculture and utah
Agriculture and Utah technology.

It’s essential!


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