Introduction to plant soil science
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Introduction to Plant & Soil Science. Objectives:. A. Define Horticulture and its related fields; B. Identify the various roles of plants in everyday life; C. Identify agriculturally important plants, and explain their uses; D. Describe how horticulture is related to science and technology.

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Introduction to Plant & Soil Science

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Introduction to Plant & Soil Science


A. Define Horticulture and its related fields;

B. Identify the various roles of plants in everyday life;

C. Identify agriculturally important plants, and explain their uses;

D. Describe how horticulture is related to science and technology.

A. Define Horticulture and its related fields;

  • Horticulture originates from Latin

    hortus= gardening

    culturea= cultivation

  • Together they literally translate:

    “Garden cultivation”

Agricultural Plants

Divisions of Horticulture

Fruit Production

Pomology =

Fruit Production

  • Propagation of fruit trees, vines, plants

  • Harvest of Fruit

  • Marketing

Vegetable Production

Olericulture = Vegetable Production

  • Vegetable Production

    • Home Gardens

    • Large Scale Gardens

  • Harvest

  • Marketing



Production of Flowers

a. Cut Flowers

b. Bedding Plants

c. Potted Plants

  • Marketing

  • Florists

Landscape Horticulture

Landscape Construction & Design

  • Irrigation systems

  • Plant Installation

  • Flower Beds

  • Landscape Design


Turf =

Ground cover

  • Turf Farms

  • Installation

  • Golf courses

  • Sport’s fields



Cultivation & Care of trees, shrubs, & Vines

  • Production

  • Tree Pruning and Care

  • As part of landscape Maintenance

B. Identify the various roles of plants in everyday life;

  • Meeting basic human needs

    • Food

    • Clothing

    • Shelter

Roles of Plants

  • Plants are direct or indirect sources of these three needs

    • Direct Plant Source – Plant or plant products are used by humans

    • Indirect Plant Source – Plants are used as animal feed and the animals or animal products are used by humans


  • Solid and liquid material we eat

  • Provides the nutrients we need to grow and live healthy lives

  • Americans expect their food to be:

    • Readily available

    • Wholesome/promote health

    • Convenient/Easy-to-use


  • Includes the garments, accessories and ornaments we ware

  • Garments are the most important area of clothing

    • Garments – worn to cover and protect the body and give it a certain appearance

      • Exe. skirt, jeans, shirt

    • Accessories - worn to supplement basic clothing

      • Exe. tie, belt, scarf

    • Ornaments – Worn for a certain appearance or to represent status

      • Exe. rings and pins

  • Clothing made from natural fiber can come from both direct and indirect plant sources.

    • Direct – Cotton, Flax

    • Indirect - Wool


  • Protect us from the elements and from harm

  • Our homes and the items that make our homes comfortable

  • Wood products are widely used in building construction

C. Identify agriculturally important plants, and explain their uses;

Field Crops

  • Plants grown in large fields

  • Used for:

    • Oil

    • Fiber

    • Grain

    • Similar products

  • Often grown for their seed, but other parts may be used

  • Example: corn, wheat, cotton, barley, safflower, soybean

C. Identify agriculturally important plants, and explain their uses;

Horticultural Crops

  • Grown for food, comfort, and beauty

  • In some cases appears to overlap field crops

  • Ornamental Horticulture

    • Growing and using plants for their beauty

    • Includes Floriculture and Landscape Horticulture

  • Food Crop Horticulture

    • Growing plants for food

    • Includes Olericulture (Vegetable Crops) and Pomology (Fruit and Nuts)

C. Identify agriculturally important plants, and explain their uses;


  • Growing frees and producing wood products

    • Lumber, paper, plywood, furniture, and similar products

    • Also includes specialty products like maple syrup, rosin, and oil

  • Involves Native Forests and Tree Farming

D. Describe how horticulture is related to science and technology.


  • Successful Horticulture is an application of science

  • Growing plants takes more than just a daily watering

  • Must understand:

    • Effects of heat, light, and photosynthesis

    • Cell division, osmosis, transpiration, etc…

Science + Technology + Plant Production


Development of Agriculture and Society

Plant & Soil Science


In the beginning, Nomads followed herds of animals and gathered food. When they discovered that they could seed grain and harvest it, they no longer needed to follow a food source. This allowed people to live in one place, thus the beginning of civilization.

Origins of Grain

Wheat = Egypt, Iran, Turkey

Corn = Mexico

Explorers would bring wheat to North America, and return with corn.

Agriculture 250 Years Ago

95% of the US Population Farmed

Each Farmer produced enough feed to feed and clothe 3 people

Most of the work was done by hand- some animal power was used

People used the barter system to exchange goods and services.

250 Years Ago

  • Families were self-sufficient by producing their own

    • Tobacco, sugar cane, rice, and cotton

    • Clothing

    • Soap

    • Candles

    • Medicines

    • Shoes

    • Farming Implements

Significant Events- 250 Years Ago

  • 1793- Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin.

    • The cotton gin helped remove seeds form the short staple of cotton, and the demand for cotton grew. Cotton was used in the US and exported as well!

Agriculture 200 Years Ago

92% of the population still farming

Each farmer produced enough to feed and clothe four people

The barter system was used mostly for trading soap, candles, medicines, and shoes

Families were becoming less self-sufficient

Significant Events- 200 Years Ago

1831- Cyrus McCormick developed the mechanical reaper. Mechanical reaper was the forerunner of the grain combine and was used for wheat.

1837- John Deere began manufacturing plows. With this invention the fertile ground could be plowed under and cultivated

Agriculture 150 Years Ago

90% of the population farmed

Each farmer produced enough for

five others

Significant Events- 150 Years Ago

1855- Michigan and Pennsylvania established the first state agriculture colleges. Justin Morrill a senator from Vermont introduced a bill to provide funds to establish schools to teach practical methods of producing food and fiber. These schools would also be conducting scientific research.

Significant Events- 150 Years Ago

  • 1862- President Lincoln created the first Department of Agriculture. (USDA)

    • The Morrill Act passed providing land to each state to build a college for common people. The purpose was to teach agriculture and mechanical arts.

Significant Events- 150 Years Ago

1869- Transcontinental railroad was completed.

1872- Congress passed the Hatch Act. This allowed states with land grant colleges to establish experiment stations.

1875- The first grain silos were built

1881- Hybrid Corn, which is produced by crossing different varieties was introduced

Agriculture 100 Years Ago

Only 50% of people farmed

Each farmer produced enough for seven others

Gasoline tractors were introduced

Banks began loaning money to farmers to purchase land and equipment

Farm families produced most of their own food and wood, and consumers had more needs.

Significant Events- 100 Years Ago

1914- The Smith-Lever Act was passed by congress.

1917- The Smith-Hughes Act was established. This allowed agriculture to be taught in high schools.

1933- The Farm Credit Administration was established

1940- The school milk program was initiated

1947- A general agreement on tariffs and trade was negotiated

Agriculture 50 Years Ago

  • 30% of the US Population was farming

  • Each farmer produced enough for 11 others

  • Gas tractor was in general use, horses still outnumbered tractors as the main source of farm power

  • Banks provided capital to farmers. Farmers tried to avoid borrowing because of massive farm losses and foreclosures in the 20’s and 30’s.

Significant Events 50 Years Ago

1959- The mechanical tomato harvester was developed.

1964- The national food stamp program was passed.

1991- More farmers used Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

1993- Passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

Agriculture Today

Less than 2% of US population is involved with production agriculture

Each farmer produces enough for 148 others

Many gov’t programs are available to help stabilize production and processing, insure supplies, limit soil erosion and regulation.

For every dollar produced by agriculture, 6-8 other dollars are generated in a community

Significant Events

The US supplies ½ of the grain sold on the world market

The number of farmers have declined, but related agriculture jobs has increased

Introduction to Utah’s Agricultural Crops

Mr. Wilson

Uintah High School

Student Learning Objectives

As a result of this lesson, the student will …

Objective #1 Appreciate the Diversity of Agriculture Production in Utah.

Objective #2 Understand the Scope and Value of Agriculture Production in Utah.

Are plants important to these people?

How much money does Utah agriculture generate each year?

Can you believe it?

Utah, in 2010, agriculture generated


To Utah’s economy.

Top Utah Commodities

The top four crop commodities

for Utah are hay, barley, wheat,.

Fruit crops

The top four livestock

commodities are cattle, sheep/lambs, hogs and dairy.

Utah Cash Receipts by Commodities

Utah’s Livestock Industry

Utah’s Rank in Feed Production

Number of Farms and Ranches

1. Texas

2. Missouri

3. Iowa

4. Kentucky

5. Minnesota

Utah’s Rank 36th

Land in Farms and Ranches

1. Texas

2. Montana

3. Kansas

4. Nebraska

5. New Mexico

Utah’s Rank 28th

Utah’s Rank in Other Areas

Mink Production 2nd

Trout Production 6th

Honey Production 24th

How important is agriculture in Utah?

Let’s explore this:

Complete the Utah Plant Statistics assignment.

Agriculture and Utah

It’s essential!

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