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History of the Middle East. Mr. Apt Sandy Run Middle School 8 th Grade Social Studies. Origin of the Term Middle East:. Coined by British and American explorers in 19 th Century to describe lands between Arabia and India Later used to describe all “Arab” lands during the 20 th Century.

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History of the Middle East

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History of the middle east

History of the Middle East

Mr. Apt

Sandy Run Middle School

8th Grade Social Studies

Origin of the term middle east

Origin of the Term Middle East:

  • Coined by British and American explorers in 19th Century to describe lands between Arabia and India

  • Later used to describe all “Arab” lands during the 20th Century.

Resources available

Resources Available

  • Stone and Sand

  • Water from rivers provided fertile land in a desert landscape

  • Wild life provided food and wealth. Animals would also be used in war.

  • Walled Cities

  • Polytheistic societies: Multiple G-ds controlling different aspects of daily life.



  • Mostly desert, often Mountainous

  • Very hot summers, very little rainfall.

  • Flooding of nearby rivers provided most of water.

  • Only land based trade route between Europe, Africa, and Asia



  • Farming and Irrigation techniques improved due to scarcity of water

  • Used topography to their advantage

  • Cities on Mountains, Valleys, or by Rivers and Seas.

  • Created large militaries to conquer other civilizations, and incorporate them into their own.

Mesopotamia and egypt

Mesopotamia and Egypt

  • Two Oldest Civilizations in the Region.

  • Both Date back to 10,000 B.C.E

  • Both centered around rivers: Tigris and Euphrates, and the Nile.

  • Two Empires:

  • Egypt under Pharaohs: 3150 B.CE- 332 B.C.E

  • Babylonia: 1894 B.C.E-332 B.C.E

Kingdom of judea

Kingdom of Judea

  • Land on coast of Mediterranean:

  • Important trade route from Egypt to Persia.

  • Mountainous and Fertile:

  • Geographically considered to be the center of the Ancient World, connecting three continents.

  • Inhabited by tribal cultures, and ultimately dominated by monotheism.

Rise of monotheism

Rise of Monotheism

  • First Monotheistic City state in Jerusalem roughly 1000 B.C.E under kingdom of Judea.

  • Judea falls to Babylon in 586 B.C.E

  • Babylon conquered by Persia in 539 B.C.E

  • Babylon-Persia conquered by Macedonians in 332 B.C.E

Alexander the great

Alexander the Great

  • Brought Hellenistic Culture to the Middle East from Greece and Macedonia.

  • Hellenism ultimately overruns Egyptian and Persian polytheism.

  • Monotheism considered illicit, and allowed to practice freely.

  • Divides the Middle East under two generals, Ptolemy and Seleucid.

The roman empire

The Roman Empire

  • Middle East occupied by Romans in 1st Century B. C.E

  • Roman architecture found in Egypt, most of modern day Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Turkey.

  • Christianity founded in 1st Century C.E. (2nd Branch of Monotheism)

  • Christianity spreads to Europe in 4th Century C.E.

Discussion questions

Discussion Questions

  • What role did the availability of water play in the development of Middle Eastern civilizations?

  • Why do you think Europeans were so interested in the area?

  • How do you think European intervention affected the development of these areas? Are those effects still demonstrated today? Why

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