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Chapter 10 Ocean Waves Part 3. ftp://ucsbuxa.ucsb.edu/opl/tommy/Geog3afall2009/. What is the warmest temperature ever recorded in Santa Barbara?. What is the warmest temperature recorded in Santa Barbara? 133 0 F or 56 0 C June 17, 1859, the greatest temperature

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Chapter 10

Ocean Waves

Part 3

ftp://ucsbuxa.ucsb.edu/opl/tommy/Geog3afall2009/


What is the warmest temperature

ever recorded in Santa Barbara?


What is the warmest temperature

recorded in Santa Barbara?

133 0F or 56 0C

June 17, 1859, the greatest temperature

reported in the U.S. until 1913

Effects? Why so warm???


Sundowner winds
Sundowner Winds

H

Coal Oil Point

Sands Beach

Campus Point


Waves for surfers:

a great way to review surface waves


“… the ocean is adifferent play-

ing field, and we don’t have

home-court advantage.”

“Wave riding sports have many

more variables to deal with.”

“… (ocean) water sports are at

the mercy of one of the Earth’s

most formidable forces: the

power of the ocean.”

“… we need to account for wind,

tidal depth, hazards, water temp-

eratures, and other fluctuations

that Mother Nature is known to

vary at her whim. All of these

factors have a science unto

themselves.” Intro, N. T. Cool

For wave forcasts:

www.wetsand.com


What factors affect surf
What Factors Affect Surf?

1. Location and strength of storms/how far are you from source of waves? Windsea or groundswell?


What factors affect surf1
What Factors Affect Surf?

1. Location and strength of storms/how far are you from source of waves? Windsea or groundswell?

2. Direction of winds and fetch


What factors affect surf2
What Factors Affect Surf?

1. Location and strength of storms/how far are you from source of waves? Windsea or groundswell?

2. Direction of winds and fetch

3. Season (waves produced in NH or SH?)


What factors affect surf3
What Factors Affect Surf?

1. Location and strength of storms/how far are you from source of waves? Windsea or groundswell?

2. Direction of winds and fetch

3. Season (waves produced in NH or SH?)

4. Tides


What factors affect surf4
What Factors Affect Surf?

1. Location and strength of storms/how far are you from source of waves? Windsea or groundswell?

2. Direction of winds and fetch

3. Season (waves produced in NH or SH?)

4. Tides

5. Sea breeze effects (steepen or flatten local waves)


What factors affect surf5
What Factors Affect Surf?

1. Location and strength of storms/how far are you from source of waves? Windsea or groundswell?

2. Direction of winds and fetch

3. Season (waves produced in NH or SH?)

4. Tides

5. Sea breeze effects (steepen or flatten local waves)

6. Water depth or bathymetry (changes with sand movement, tides, and storm surge) and slope


What factors affect surf6
What Factors Affect Surf?

1. Location and strength of storms/how far are you from source of waves? Windsea or groundswell?

2. Direction of winds and fetch

3. Season (waves produced in NH or SH?)

4. Tides

5. Sea breeze effects (steepen or flatten local waves)

6. Water depth or bathymetry (changes with sand movement, tides, and storm surge) and slope

7. Coastal shape (points or bays)


What factors affect surf7
What Factors Affect Surf?

1. Location and strength of storms/how far are you from source of waves? Windsea or groundswell?

2. Direction of winds and fetch

3. Season (waves produced in NH or SH?)

4. Tides

5. Sea breeze effects (steepen or flatten local waves)

6. Water depth or bathymetry (changes with sand movement, tides, and storm surge) and slope

7. Coastal shape (points or bays)

8. Angle of impingement of waves on shoreline


What factors affect surf8
What Factors Affect Surf?

1. Location and strength of storms/how far are you from source of waves? Windsea or groundswell?

2. Direction of winds and fetch

3. Season (waves produced in NH or SH?)

4. Tides

5. Sea breeze effects (steepen or flatten local waves)

6. Water depth or bathymetry (changes with sand movement, tides, and storm surge) and slope

7. Coastal shape (points or bays)

8. Angle of impingement of waves on shoreline

9. Refraction, reflection, diffraction, shadowing


What factors affect surf9
What Factors Affect Surf?

1. Location and strength of storms/how far are you from source of waves? Windsea or groundswell?

2. Direction of winds and fetch

3. Season (waves produced in NH or SH?)

4. Tides

5. Sea breeze effects (steepen or flatten local waves)

6. Water depth or bathymetry (changes with sand movement, tides, and storm surge) and slope

7. Coastal shape (points or bays)

8. Angle of impingement of waves on shoreline

9. Refraction, reflection, diffraction, shadowing

10. Wave interference (constructive or destructive)


What factors affect surf10
What Factors Affect Surf?

1. Location and strength of storms/how far are you from source of waves? Windsea or groundswell?

2. Direction of winds and fetch

3. Season (waves produced in NH or SH?)

4. Tides

5. Sea breeze effects (steepen or flatten local waves)

6. Water depth or bathymetry (changes with sand movement, tides, and storm surge) and slope

7. Coastal shape (points or bays)

8. Angle of impingement of waves on shoreline

9. Refraction, reflection, diffraction, shadowing

10. Wave interference (constructive or destructive)

11. Current interaction with waves



Development of a major low (cyclogenesis):

Good for producing big surf far away

Surf

Generation

From Surf Science





Rip Currents

What to do if you get

caught in a rip current?


Rip Currents

What to do if you get

caught in a rip current?

Swim perpendicular

to rip current.



Wave breaks for different tidal conditions
Wave Breaks for Different Tidal Conditions

Note that surf forecasts in Hawaii (and elsewhere?)

measure wave heights of faces (fronts) of waves.

These can be up to twice usual H values.

From Surf Science


Sea Breeze Effects on Surf

Winds directed offshore

Winds direct onshore

From Surf Science


Factors affecting wave shape

Why is west coast of U.S. generally better for surfing

than the east coast?


Wave Climatology as Affected by Depressions

North Swell

South

Swell

From Surf Science


Wave Climatology

From Surf Science


Wave Groups:

Groupiness

and Settiness

Between storm center and

coast, waves organize into

groups or sets.

Groups of waves travel

at group velocity, which

is ½ of individual phase

velocity for “deep-water”

waves.

From Surf Science


Wave Groups

and Settiness

Between storm center and

coast, waves organize into

groups or sets

Groups of waves travel

at group velocity, which

is ½ of individual phase

velocity for “deep-water”

waves.

From Surf Science


What factors affect surf11
What Factors Affect Surf?

1. Location and strength of storms/How far are you from source of waves? Windsea or groundswell?

2. Direction of winds and fetch (note: longer fetch gives longer period and bigger waves)

3. Season (waves produced in NH or SH?)

4. Tides

5. Sea breeze effects (steepen or flatten local waves)

6. Water depth or bathymetry (changes with sand movement, tides, and storm surge) and slope

7. Coastal shape (points or bays)

8. Angle of impingement of waves on shoreline

9. Refraction, reflection, diffraction

10. Wave interference (constructive or destructive)

11. Current interaction with waves

12. Wave steepness near shore (when to catch a wave)



Excellent surf website:

http://facs.scripps.edu/surf/


NOAA

Wave Forecasting

Using Winds

Wind barbs are

superimposed

on wave heights

From Surf Science

meters


Wave Model

Feet

From Surf Science

From Surf Science


NOAA

Wave Forecasting

Note that longer

period waves

have moved out

faster from

the storm center.

From Surf Science

Seconds


Wave forecasts what can we surmise from these data
Wave ForecastsWhat canwe surmisefrom thesedata?

Periods

in seconds

This website has lots of local surf info:

wave heights, periods, directions


Wamiii
WAMIII

Feet


Surf Tips:

Be careful of rip currents.

Avoid water after storms – waterborne bacteria and viruses.

Sharks hang out around river inflow areas, especially after storms.


Surf Tips:

NOAA wave buoy data and wave model forecasts

Look at weather maps

Google

http://wavecast.com/stateofsurf

http:/www.surfline.com

Wetsand.com

VenturaCountyStar.com (wave webcam)

http://facs.scripps.edu/surf/

http://cdip.ucsd.edu (Coastal Data Info Pgm)

http://weather.unisys.com/gfsx/init/gfsx_500p_init_nhem.html

http://www.stormsurf.com/mdls/menu.html


Some surf science books
Some Surf Science Books

Surf Science: An Introduction to Waves for Surfing, Tony Butt and Paul Russell with Rick Grigg, University of Hawaii Press, Alison Hodge Publishers.

Surf Forecasting by Nathan Todd Cool

The Stormrider Guide, Low Pressure Publishing. [Series of books]

Surfing California by Bank Wright

The Next Wave: The World of Surfing,

edited by Nick Carroll

  • http://facs.scripps.edu/surf/

  • http://cdip.ucsd.edu

  • www.wetsand.com




Ocean Power Technologies

Project Location: Oahu, Hawaii (30 m)Status: PB-40 deployed June 2004,

October 2005 and June 2007.

Objective: Demonstrate Wave Power for use

at US Navy bases, worldwideWave Park Size: Up to 1 MW

http://www.oceanpowertechnologies.com/

(video available here)




Storm Surge

Hurricane-generated storm surge occurs both as a result of atmospheric pressure changes and wind-driven factors that alter sea level.


Katrina

145 mph

27’ (?) surge

$100B (?)

(Andrew $27B)

16” rain


Katrina’s Fury

145 mph

27’ (?) surge

$100B (?)

(Andrew $27B)

16” rain

SLOSH

Model

AP photo


Katrina’s

Surge

Science Museum of Minnesota

USGS real-time time series

34 sq mi of wetlands

lost per year since 1930

QuickBird Satellite Images (60 cm res)

Envirocast website


Before

Storm surge and waves from Katrina leveled and submerged large sections of Chandeleur Islands off the coast of Louisiana. The islands were previously overwashed by Hurricanes Lili (2002), Ivan (2004) and Dennis (2005). The destruction of barrier islands means even less protection from future storms.

After



Pirate hijacking of the Sirius Star

2 million gal of oil valued

at $100 million


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