Antebellum mississippi
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Antebellum Mississippi. Antebellum Mississippi. The a ntebellum period refers to the time in MS before the Civil War (1817 – 1861). MS will develop rapidly in many ways during the Antebellum Period. MS’s New Capital.

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Antebellum Mississippi

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Antebellum mississippi

Antebellum Mississippi


Antebellum mississippi1

Antebellum Mississippi

  • The antebellum period refers to the time in MS before the Civil War (1817 – 1861).

  • MS will develop rapidly in many ways during the Antebellum Period.


Ms s new capital

MS’s New Capital

  • Most Mississippians live in the Natchez District and those in the eastern and northern parts of the state feel neglected by the state legislature.

  • In 1821, the state legislature chose LeFleur’sBluff on the Pearl River as the site of Jackson, the state’s new capital.

  • This location was chosen because:

    • it was centrally located in the state.

    • they believed the Pearl River would become a major trade route.


Jackson ms

Jackson, MS


Andrew jackson

Andrew Jackson


The era of the common man

The Era of the Common Man

  • Andrew Jackson was elected president in 1828.

  • This began the Era of the Common Man.

  • Most white males gained the right to vote and hold public office during this time.


Ms s constitution of 1832

MS’s Constitution of 1832

  • MS’s Constitution of 1832 reflected the principles of the Era of the Common Man.

  • Judges were elected and had specified terms of office.

  • Most state offices became elective.

  • Paying taxes or owning property were eliminated as requirements to vote.

  • Representation in both houses of MS’s legislature became determined by population.


The native americans of ms

The Native Americans of MS

  • In order for MS to develop, more settlers were needed.

  • The problem was, most of the lands of MS were controlled by the Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes.

    3. Assimilation – bringing the Native Americans into U.S. society – didn’t work.


The indian removal act of 1830

The Indian Removal Act of 1830

  • In 1830, in order to remove the Native Americans from the southeastern U.S., Andrew Jackson had the U.S. Congress pass the Indian Removal Act.

  • This law:

    • Paid the Native Americans for their land in MS.

    • Provided new lands in the Indian Territory in the west.

    • Provided for the move of the Native Americans westward.


Ms native american land cessions

MS Native American Land Cessions

  • Treaty of Pontotoc – 1832

  • Treaty of 1816

    3. Added in 1812

  • Treaty of Fort Adams – 1801

  • Treaty of Doak’s Stand – 1820

  • Treaty of Mount Dexter – 1815

  • Treaty of Hoe Buckintoopa – 1803

    8. Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek - 1830


The trail of tears

The Trail of Tears

  • The new Indian Territory that was created was in present-day Oklahoma.

  • The Native Americans made their way to the territory the best they could, often without the government help that had been promised.

  • Many Native Americans died along the way.


The trail of tears1

The Trail of Tears


Prominent native americans in ms

Prominent Native Americans in MS

Pushmataha was a Choctaw chief who served as a scout for the U.S. Army.

Greenwood Leflore was a wealthy plantation owner and served in the state legislature.


Slavery in ms

Slavery in MS

  • The first slaves were brought into MS by the French.

  • The French had a set of laws called the Code Noir, or Black Code, which provided slaves with some protections.

  • In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, a machine that removed the seeds from cotton.

  • The cotton gin allowed MS farmers to grow larger amounts of cotton, which led to larger numbers of slaves in the state.


Eli whitney and the cotton gin

Eli Whitney and the Cotton Gin


Modern day cotton gin

Modern Day Cotton Gin


The treatment of slaves

The Treatment of Slaves

  • By 1840, there were more African slaves in MS than white citizens of the state, but only about 9% of the white population owned slaves.

  • The majority of slaves lived on plantations, which were relatively large farms usually run by an overseer.

  • Due to the large expense of slaves, most plantation owners provided adequate treatment for their slaves, but there were no protections for slaves at all.


Slavery in ms1

Slavery in MS


Resistance to slavery

Resistance to Slavery

  • Some slave owners and overseers were killed while attempting to discipline their slaves.

  • Owners and families were poisoned.

  • Machinery was broken.

  • Cotton gins and bales of cotton were burned.

  • Slaves would work slowly.


Free black mississippians

Free Black Mississippians

  • Some free black Mississippians lived in the towns of Natchez and Vicksburg.

  • Free black Mississippians lived under many restrictions because white Mississippians were afraid they might encourage the slaves to rebel.

  • By the 1830’s, free black Mississippians were required to leave MS unless the local government where they lived gave them permission to remain.


William johnson

William Johnson

  • William Johnson of Natchez was the most prominent free black Mississippian.

  • He owned several businesses and according to his diary, even owned slaves.

  • He was murdered by a white man who was never found guilty because the only witness to the crime was a black man and MS law prohibited a black man from testifying against a white man.


Flush times

Flush Times

  • Prosperity was common in antebellum MS due to the cheap price of land and the high price of cotton.

  • As the prosperity spread, banks began giving easy credit and printed more currency – paper money – than they had specie – gold and silver – to back it up.

  • This practice eventually lead to the Panic of 1837.


The panic of 1837

The Panic of 1837

  • The price of cotton fell drastically.

  • In MS, landowners who bought their land on credit and then couldn’t pay back their debts had their land foreclosed on.

  • Landowners who couldn’t pay their taxes had their land seized by the state.

  • Banks closed and even the state government went bankrupt.


Transportation in ms

Transportation in MS

  • The earliest forms of transportation in MS were the rivers – there were few roads and those in existence were difficult to travel.

  • The invention of steamboats allowed for faster transportation and opened up more areas of the state to settlement.

  • The earliest railroads were cotton lines – they connected a town with a cotton gin to the nearest river port.

  • Later, trunk lines were built, which connected the major towns and cities of MS with those of other southern states.


Mississippi steamboats

Mississippi Steamboats


The west feliciana

The West Feliciana

  • The West Feliciana was the first railroad built in MS - it was a cotton line.

  • It was built by Edward McGehee.


Antebellum education

Antebellum Education

  • MS’s first public school was Franklin Academy, located in Columbus, MS.

  • Because MS was a rural state with few towns, 16th section land didn’t raise many funds for education.

  • Education became the responsibility of the home.

  • Wealthy Mississippians hired private tutors to educate their children – the children of poor Mississippians often received no education.


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