Workshop on concepts of development
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Workshop on Concepts of Development. NGO Management. Introduction. Trainer Training Assistants Participants. International/Global Development. No proper definition but generally means Human Development. ‘Development of greater quality of life for human beings.’. Issues Covered.

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Workshop on Concepts of Development

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Workshop on concepts of development

Workshop on Concepts of Development

NGO Management


Introduction

Introduction

  • Trainer

  • Training Assistants

  • Participants

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


International global development

International/Global Development

  • No proper definition but generally means Human Development.

  • ‘Development of greater quality of life for human beings.’

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Issues covered

Issues Covered

  • Foreign aid,

  • Governance,

  • Healthcare,

  • Education,

  • Gender equality,

  • Disaster preparedness,

  • Infrastructure,

  • Economics,

  • Human rights,

  • Environment.

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Workshop on concepts of development

  • Related to International Aid

  • But Different from Disaster Relief and Humanitarian Aid.

  • Why?

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


History of international development

History of International Development

  • International Trade and International Relations have been around for centuries.

  • But international development started in Post WW-II.

  • Events that led to the inception of the concept were:

    • Need for Reconstruction after WW-II, [Marshal Plan]

    • Evolution of Colonization to Globalization,

    • Cold War.

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


History of international development1

History of International Development

  • 1960’s – The Era of Dependency Theory,

  • 1970’s and 1980’s Neo-Liberal Ideas through structural adjustment programs.

  • Counter Movement of Human Development [Mahboub ul Haq and Amartya Sen]

  • 1990’s Post Development Era,

  • Millennium Development Goals [MDGs]

  • Human Development Index

  • Private Public Partnership

  • Corporate Social Responsibility

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Workshop on concepts of development

Lets Play a Game

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Theories of international development

Theories of International Development

  • Modernization Theory

  • Dependency Theory

  • World Systems Theory

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Modernization theory

Modernization Theory

  • A theory used to explain the process of Modernization within societies.

  • The theory looks at the internal factors of a country while assuming that, with assistance, "traditional" countries can be brought to development in the same manner more developed countries have.

  • The less develop should follow the developed.

    • Changes in Social Structure, [Child Labor, Gender Equality]

    • Function of State, [Transparency International]

    • Technology [ICT]

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Workshop on concepts of development

  • Can you cite any NGO or Program working in this direction?

  • What is wrong with this theory?

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Dependency theory or dependencia theory

Dependency theory or dependencia theory

  • Resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former.

  • Poor nations provide natural resources, cheap labor, a destination for obsolete technology, and markets to the wealthy nations, without which the latter could not have the standard of living they enjoy.

  • Wealthy nations actively perpetuate a state of dependence by various means. This influence may be multifaceted, involving economics, media control, politics, banking and finance, education, culture, sport, and all aspects of human resource development.

  • Wealthy nations actively counter attempts by dependent nations to resist their influences by means of economic sanctions and/or the use of military force.

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Workshop on concepts of development

  • Do you agree to this theory???

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


World systems theory

World Systems Theory

  • Core: the rich, developed countries of the world

  • Periphery: poor, dependent nations

  • Semi-periphery: semi-industrialized countries

  • Dependency: The vulnerable state of depending on core countries for trade/investment

  • Trade concentration: The situation in which trade is conducted with a small number of countries

  • Investment concentration: When investment comes from a small number of countries.

  • High levels of concentration mean a country is beholden to others

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Fundamental concepts of international development

Fundamental Concepts of International Development

  • Poverty

  • Inequality

  • Dignity

  • Participation

  • Appropriateness

  • Sustainability

  • Capacity Building

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Workshop on concepts of development

Case Study and Tea Break

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Governance

Governance

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Definition of governance

Definition of Governance

  • World Bank

  • The exercise of political authority and the use of institutional resources to manage society's problems and affairs.

  • Worldwide Governance Indicators

  • The traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised.

  • Steph’s Definition

  • The use of institutions, structures of authority and even collaboration to allocate resources and coordinate or control activity in society or the economy.

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Politics and governance

Politics and Governance

  • Politics: processes by which a group of people with initially divergent opinions or interests reach collective decisions generally regarded as binding on the group, and enforced as common policy.

  • Governance: the administrative and process-oriented elements of governing rather than its antagonistic ones.

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Workshop on concepts of development

  • How it happens in University of Peshawar?

  • How it happens in your organization?

  • How it happens in Pakistan?

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Implementing governance

Implementing Governance

  • Networks: Private Public Partnership, CBO

  • Markets: Market Mechanisms

  • Hierarchy: Government to bureaucracy.

  • **Fair Governance

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Workshop on concepts of development

  • Why Democracy is preferred over dictatorship?

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Types of governance

Types of Governance

  • Global Governance

  • Corporate Governance

  • Project Governance

  • IT governance

  • Non Profit Governance

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


So what is good governance

So what is good governance?

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Workshop on concepts of development

  • Why should I tell you everything?

    Read the paper ‘ GOVERNANCE, DEVELOPMENT AND AID EFFECTIVENESS’ and prepare a presentation

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Millennium development goals mdgs

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

  • Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

  • Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education

  • Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women

  • Goal 4: Reduce child mortality

  • Goal 5: Improve maternal health

  • Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

  • Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability

  • Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Key actors

Key Actors

  • Inter-governmental organisations

  • Employers or corporations

  • Consumers and the public

  • Formal trade unions

  • Non-governmental organisations

  • Individuals, families and communities

  • Donors

  • Civil Society

  • Any others ???

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Civil society in pakistna

Civil Society in Pakistna

  • political parties,

  • Nongovernmental organizations,

  • Trade unions,

  • Professional associations,

  • Philanthropies,

  • Academia,

  • Independent and quasi-independent pressure groups,

  • Think tanks,

  • and traditional, informal

  • formations such as faith-based organizations, shrines, seminaries, neighborhood associations,

  • burial societies, jirgas and savings groups.

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Typology

Typology

  • NGOs (Non-Governmental Organization): Private, non-profit citizen organizations, pressure groups and support centers. Also referred to as the citizen sector.

  • Community Based Organizations (CBOs): Membership-based, grassroots organizations - a subset of NGOs.

  • Trade Unions: Organized associations of the workers in an industry or profession working for the protection and furtherance of their rights and interests.

  • CSOs (Civil Society Organizations): CSO is used as an umbrella term to refer to NGOs, CBOs, think tanks, trade unions, cultural groups and informal citizen organizations

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Structure of civil society in pakistan

Structure of Civil Society in Pakistan

  • According to Aga khan Development network

  • There are 10,000 to 12,000 Registered NGO in Pakistan.

  • If unregistered are considered then the number reaches 60,000.

  • 59% in Punjab, then in Sindh, then in K-P, Then Baluchistan.

  • Registered under five different laws.

  • The Societies Act (1860), Companies Ordinance (1984), the Trust Act (1882), the Charitable Endowments Act (1890), the Co-operative Act (1925) and the Voluntary Social Welfare Agencies (Registration and Control) Ordinance (1961).

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Thematic focus

Thematic Focus

  • Education (including basic, Primary, adult and informal) represents 56 percent of the total,

  • Health and women’s development accounting for 39 percent.

  • Other areas of focus include early childhood development (15.2 percent), sports promotion and recreation (12.3 percent) and community development (12 percent). Intermediary NGOs and support organizations are also most actively engaged in education (69 percent); and women’s issues (56 percent).

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Funding

Funding

  • International Donations

  • CIDA, SDC, USAID, DFID, UN, Embassies of Australia, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherland

  • International NGOs

  • Oxfam, Save the Children, Asia Foundation, British Council, Christen Social Services, Action Aid etc.

  • Internal Fund Generation

  • In 1998 Pakistanis gave an estimated Rs.41 billion in cash and kind, and another estimated Rs.29 million in time. As much as 65 percent of all monetary giving went to individuals, two-thirds of which was ‘zakat’

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Membership base

Membership Base

  • one-third had fewer than 50 individual members,

  • 17 percent had 50-99 members,

  • 20 percent had 100-149 members,

  • 5 percent of the total had more than 450 members.

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Umbrella bodies

Umbrella Bodies

  • Pakistan NGO Forum [PNF]

  • Advocacy Development Network,

  • Co-ordination Council for Child Welfare,

  • Women in Development (WID) networks,

  • Rural Support Network (RSPN),

  • Pakistan Reproductive Health Network (PRHN),

  • Pakistan Education Network (PEN),

  • Pakistan Microfinance Network

  • Environmental NGOs Network.

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


Break then paper

BREAK ……THEN PAPER!!!

Concepts of Development by SaifUllah Khan, IMS - University of Peshawar


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