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Behavior Specialist Systems & Coaching. Bruce StillerChris Borgmeier Eugene 4J SDPortland State University [email protected] [email protected] District Behavior Specialist. IPBS: Guide systems-change and implementation . Old model: Put out fires. The New Model -- IPBS.

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Behavior SpecialistSystems & Coaching

Bruce StillerChris Borgmeier

Eugene 4J SDPortland State University

[email protected]@pdx.edu


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District Behavior Specialist

IPBS: Guide systems-change and implementation

Old model: Put out fires


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The New Model -- IPBS

  • Efficient Teaming Process

    • Clear roles, procedures & responsibilities

    • Intervention Focused

      • Linked to Continuum of Interventions (Tier 1  2  3)

      • Try the easy things first (Tier 2 Interventions)

      • …then Tier 3 (FBA/BSP)

    • Data focused

      • Progress Monitoring

      • Student Identification


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Teams in a School

Tier I

Tier II

Tier III

UniversalSWPBIS Team

Progress Monitoring Team

FBA Team

Monitors effectiveness and fidelity of Tier 2 Interventions (overall and for each student)

Plans SW & Class-wide supports

Conducts FBA, develops BIP

NOT a standing team

Could responsibilities of an existing team (TAT/SST/etc.) be shifted?

Sept. 1, 2009


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Tier 2 Interventions


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Comprehensive Supports

Function-based Support

Tier III

Group Interventions w/function-based

modifications

Lunch buddies

  • Group Interventions

  • CICO

  • Skills groups

Tier II

Anger Mgmt group

Social Skills Groups

Peer Tutors

Homework Club

School Mentors

Study Skills

  • Tier 1

  • SWPBS Tier I


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So Tell Us….

  • What are your schools currently implementing for Tier 2 interventions?

  • What do you need/want to know about Tier 2 interventions for behavior?

    TASK

  • Complete the Tier 2 Intervention Inventory for your school or schools in your district


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Tier 2 Intervention Inventory


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Tier 2 Interventions

  • Research/Evidence based

  • Match to student need

  • Early student identification

  • Progress monitoring and Data Based Decision Making


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CICO: As model for Tier 2 Interventions


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Research Support

  • CICO is an Evidence-Based Practice

  • At least 5 peer reviewed studies

  • At least 3 different researchers/settings

  • At least 20 different participants

  • Pre schools

    • Sandy Chafouleas, et al 2007

  • Elementary Schools

    • Anne Todd et al in press

    • Sarah Fairbanks et al, 2007

    • Amy Kauffman-Campbell, dissertation

    • Doug Cheney et al, 2006; 2007

    • Leanne Hawken et al. 2007

    • Filter et al., 2007

  • Middle Schools

    • Leanne Hawken et al 2003

    • Rob March et al 2002

  • High Schools

    • Jessica Swain-Bradway, in progress


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Characteristics of Targeted Interventions

  • explicitly teachingexpected behavior to the student

  • structured promptsfor appropriate behavior

  • opportunities to practice skills

  • opportunities for positive feedback

  • strategies for fading support as the student gains new skills

  • system for communicating with parents

  • regular Data for Monitoring student progress

Keys to Changing Behavior


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Morning

Check-in

Parent

Feedback

Regular Teacher

Feedback

Bi-weekly SST Meeting

to Assess Student

Progress

Afternoon

Check-out

Revise

Program

Student Recommended for CICO

Check In Check Out (CICO)

CICO is Implemented

Teach/Role Play Skills

CICO Coordinator

Summarizes Data

For Decision Making

Exit

Program


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Check In / Check Out

  • As a model for what targeted interventions should be

  • explicitly teaching expected behavior to the student

  • structured prompts for appropriate behavior

  • opportunities to practice skills

  • opportunities for positive feedback

  • strategies for fading support as the student gains new skills

  • system for communicating with parents

  • Regular Data for Monitoring student progress


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Check In / Check Out

How does CICO do this?

Explicitly teaching expected behavior to the student

Structured prompts for appropriate behavior

Opportunities to practice skills

Opportunities for positive feedback

Strategies for fading support as the student gains new skills

System for communicating with parents

Regular Data for Monitoring student progress


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Group Work TimeTier 2 Interventions

Evaluate an existing Tier 2/group intervention in your school, how does it stand up to the Tier 2 Intervention characteristics?

  • explicitly teaching expected behavior to the student

  • structured prompts for appropriate behavior

  • opportunities to practice skills

  • opportunities for positive feedback

  • strategies for fading support as the student gains new skills

  • system for communicating with parents

  • Regular Data for Monitoring student progress


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Monitor Fidelity of Implementation

  • Benchmark of Advanced Tiers

  • Check-In Check-Out Self Assessment

  • BEP Fidelity of Implementation tool


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Questions about Tier 2 InterventionsSystems Considerations

  • What constitutes a Tier 2 Intervention?

    • An intervention that:

      • Serves multiple students at one time

        • More efficient use of resources that 1 student at a time

      • Students can get started with almost immediately upon referral

      • Requires almost no legwork from referring staff to begin implementation of the intervention with a student

      • All school staff know about, understand their roll with, and know the referral process for

    • SYSTEMS NOTE: Resources Required:

      • If program is not self-sufficient… and requires significant organization by referring staff… it’s not a targeted intervention


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Questions about Tier 2 InterventionsSystems Considerations

  • How many should we have?

    • To run systemic interventions or programs, school resources will often only allow a school to have so many (likely 2-5 interventions at one time)

    • Be strategic in investing resources in targeted interventions that will meet a need for a number of students in your school

    • A few successful programs are better than many that never really operate successfully because limited resources don’t allow for it – or aren’t accessed because it is too much trouble for referring staff to get a student started with

GOOD QUESTION!


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Progress Monitoring

  • No matter how good the intervention

    • No intervention works for ALL

    • Even CICO

    • We need effective Data Systems

      • See SWIS-CICO – www.swis.org


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SWIS-CICO Report

What NOW?

CICO


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CICO

Limitations

  • Most effective for students who respond well to adult attention

  • It doesn’t work for everyone 

    Strengths

  • Format provides an Excellent foundation for critical elements of Targeted Interventions

    • Data system, card for prompting, communication w/ family

  • Potential for modification to meet needs across students w/ variety of needs


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Possible Motivation

  • Role in SW Decision Making re: Tier 2

  • Role in Individual Student Decision Making re: Tier 2


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Behavioral Explanations for “Why”

  • Don’t forget - From student’s perspective, problem behavior serves a purpose, such as…

    • Gaining attention

    • Gaining access to activities or tangible items

    • Avoiding or escaping from something student finds unpleasant

Newton, J.S., Todd, A.W., Algozzine, K, Horner, R.H. & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon unpublished training manual.


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What might this data tell us about the needs for Tier 2 interventions in this school?

Middle School: Students w/ 2 + referrals

?

CICO


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Using Function of Behavior to Inform CICO Modifications

  • Use of Brief FBA to match student to appropriate version of CICO


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CICO ModificationsIntervention Examples


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Academic Skills

  • Students in CICO still failing classes

    • Missing assignments

    • At or near grade level reading, math abilities

  • Peripheral skills

    • Organization

    • Breaking large tasks into smaller pieces

    • Prioritizing

  • 2003 study, Swanson & Deshler

    • Explicit teaching and practice of organizational skills corresponded with a 16% increase in student success in the general education setting.


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Secondary Interventions Practices: Supporting Student Behavior

Academic Seminar

45 minutes every other day

Study skills content

Academic Seminar instructor is also CICO coordinator

CICO

1-2 minute positive check in at beginning of day with CICO coordinator

Academic Seminar room, academic seminar staff

30 second positive check in with each class room teacher

Check out on behavioral performance in Academic Seminar

ACADEMIC SEMINAR + CICO


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Academic Seminar: Function

  • Attention maintained behavior

    • Adult attention: CICO card

    • Peer attention: ability to earn social rewards

  • Escape maintained behavior

    • Escape difficult task: breaking down tasks, organization, one


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Academic Seminar: Study Skills

  • Planner

  • Daily Entry Task

    • Prioritize assignments

  • Notebook, backpack, locker organization

  • Graduation Plan

    • Know grade level requirements

  • Technology

  • Self monitoring (academic progress)


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Academic Seminar: Study Skills

Decrease negative school experiences by:

  • providing support for students to complete assignments on time and with accuracy,

  • and increase knowledge and use of self-management skills within the school setting


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Academic focused CICOMiddle School

  • Morning Check-in

    • Students check-in with counselor

    • All homework completed? Prepared for the school day with all necessary materials?

    • Opportunity to complete unfinished homework and to gather materials

  • Daily point card and Homework tracker

    • Receive feedback each period about behavior during class (participation, staying on-task, completing work)

    • Record assignments on homework tracker

  • Afternoon Check-out

    • Check-out with counselor

    • Review point card and homework tracker

    • Does student know what is due tomorrow? Have all materials needed to complete assignments?

  • Home Component

    • Parents review daily feedback with student

    • Sign card to indicate if student has completed all homework


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CICO Modification ElementaryEscape Academic Task

  • Explicitly teach an alternative/replacement behavior (i.e., break requests)

  • Promote self-management by teaching students to “keep track” of their breaks

  • Establish & Teach teachers (and students) how this will look in the classroom

  • Make it feasible and sustainable for classroom teachers to implement


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Breaks are Better Card


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SWIS-CICO Report

What NOW?

FBA = Avoid Academic Tasks (esp. if HW not completed)

CICO

Start w/ CICO – Academic focus


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Other Potential Tier 2 Interventions

  • Homework Club

  • Social Skills groups

  • Academic Skills groups

  • Counseling groups


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Characteristics of Targeted Interventions

  • explicitly teachingexpected behavior to the student

  • structured promptsfor appropriate behavior

  • opportunities to practice skills

  • opportunities for positive feedback

  • strategies for fading support as the student gains new skills

  • system for communicating with parents

  • regular Data for Monitoring student progress

Keys to Changing Behavior


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Data Systems

  • Critical to track progress

  • Regularly evaluate benefit of Tier 2 interventions


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% of Points Earned x Students on

Tier 2 Interventions

% of Points Earned

CICO

6 of 13 (46 %) students are responding to Tier 2 Interventions

CICO

CICO

CICO

CICO

CICO

CICO

Anger Mgmt Group

Anger Mgmt Group

Anger Mgmt Group

Anger Mgmt Group

Anger Mgmt Group

Anger Mgmt Group

What action plan items would you suggest given this data?

How about now?

Students


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Homework Club

  • What is the goal of the Tier 2 intervention?

    • What are the behavioral outcomes desired?

    • What are the academic outcomes desired?

  • How can you evaluate progress toward this goal in an observable/measurable way?


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What would you measure to determine student success in Homework Club?

-for behavior?

-for academic outcomes?


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Group Work TimeTier 2

Using your selected Tier 2 intervention (non-CICO)

  • What is the goal of the intervention?

    • What are the behavioral outcomes desired?

    • What are the academic outcomes desired?

  • How can you evaluate progress toward this goal in an observable/measurable way?


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Tier 2 Interventions &Social Skills Instruction


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Cautions regarding Social Skills Instruction

Matching Interventions to Deficit Types

  • most social skills studies deliver a treatment to children with an almost complete disregard for the types of social skills deficits children may have (Gresham, 1998)

  • consider acquisition v. performance deficits


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Cautions regarding Social Skills Instruction

Treatment Integrity

  • little evidence interventions were implemented as planned or intended


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Cautions regarding Social Skills Instruction

Address Generalization & Maintenance Issues

  • failure to adequately program for generalization & maintenance

  • failure to match instructional procedures to specific types of deficits

  • failure to target socially valid behaviors


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Cautions regarding Social Skills Instruction

Address Generalization & Maintenance Issues

  • Functional approach is needed to program for generalization & maintenance (Horner & Billingsley, 1998)

  • one reason so many socially skilled behaviors fail to generalize is the newly taught skill is masked or overpowered by older and stronger competing behaviors


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Social Skills Basics

  • Social skills curriculum must match the specific need.

  • An ideal curriculum does not exist.

  • Basic set of “Preferred Teaching Practices” exists.

  • Initially, learning how to teach social skills takes time and energy.


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Social Skills

  • Common misperception is that the social skills group will “fix” the student and the classroom teacher does not need to be an active participant since “specialists” or outside staff are often involved in the intervention.

  • Important to stress that these interventions will require high level of involvement among ALL staff within the school building


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The Bottom Line!!!

  • For an intervention to be effective, it must get the student the same thing, in the same amount, that the problem behavior currently gets him.


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Functional Perspective

“Inappropriate” social skills meet a student need and until we teach an “appropriate” social skill and alter the environment, they will continue to use the “inappropriate” social skill


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Identify the “Replacement” Behavior

  • An appropriate Replacement Behavior:

    • Serves the same function as the problem behavior

      • The replacement behavior is a member of the same response class as the problem behavior

    • Is as, or more efficient than the problem behavior

      • physical effort, schedule of reinforcement, time to reinforcement

    • Is socially acceptable


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Which of the Following are Appropriate Replacement Behaviors?

  • Jason is nine and cries when asked to do difficult tasks. The crying is maintained by avoiding or escaping the tasks.

  • Possible Replacement Behaviors:

    • More rewards for doing tasks

    • Asking for a break from tasks

    • Asking to do something other than the tasks

    • Requesting adult attention

    • Asking to have soda after tasks are done


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    Which of the Following are Appropriate Replacement Behaviors?

    • Jason is nine and cries when asked to do difficult tasks. The crying is maintained by avoiding or escaping the tasks.

  • Possible Replacement Behaviors:

    • More rewards for doing tasks

    • Asking for a break from tasks

    • Asking to do something other than the tasks

    • Requesting adult attention

    • Asking to have soda after tasks are done


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    Which of the Following are Appropriate Replacement Behaviors?

    • Leslie is 12, has severe intellectual disabilities, does not use words, and hits her head. Head hitting is maintained by adult attention during work periods.

  • Which is the best Replacement Behavior

    • hide under her desk and be ignored

    • sign for “more” to another student

    • take completed work up to show the teacher

    • move to sit by another student

    • engage in stereotypies


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    Which of the Following are Appropriate Replacement Behaviors?

    • Leslie is 12, has severe intellectual disabilities, does not use words, and hits her head. Head hitting is maintained by adult attention during work periods.

  • Which is the best Replacement Behavior

    • hide under her desk and be ignored

    • sign for “more” to another student

    • take completed work up to show the teacher

    • move to sit by another student

    • engage in stereotypies


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    Teaching a Prosocial Replacement Behavior

    • Identify an appropriate behavior that will get the student the same thing that the inappropriate behavior currently gets him.

    • Model the replacement behavior

    • Have student practice to mastery

    • When the opportunity arises in the “real” setting, prompt the replacement behavior

    • Reinforce the student’s attempt to use the replacement behavior


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    Assessment: Student Identification

    • Emphasize the use of existing data / assessment sources such as ODR, visits to discipline room, teacher referral, number of “buddy room” visits

    • Measurable outcome – is social skill instruction making a difference?

      • Reductions in non-desired behavior

      • Increases in alterative behavior (social skill)


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    Facilitated Work TimeTier 2 Interventions

    • How can you support your schools to begin evaluating the efficacy of their group interventions?

    • How can you help them to prioritize which Tier 2 interventions will offer the greatest benefit?

    • How can you support your schools in turning existing group interventions into Tier 2 interventions?


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