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Тема 8. Элементы механики сплошной среды PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Тема 8. Элементы механики сплошной среды. 8.1. Основные законы и уравнения гидростатики. Закон Паскаля. Закон Архимеда. Архимед (287 - 212 до н.э.). Б.Паскаль (1623 - 1662). Закон Паскаля. Давление, оказываемое на жидкость или газ, передается по всем направлениям одинаково.

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Тема 8. Элементы механики сплошной среды

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8

8.

8.1. . .

(287-212

..)

.

(1623-1662)


8

, , .

1 = 2 = 3


8

p = p0+ph

ph= gh

p0= F/S


8

.


8

f

F

:

:

H

s

S

h


8

, :

p2= gh2.

p1= gh1;

h2 > h1 ,

p2 > p1.

V

:

FA= V g

F2 - F1 = FA

FA= S(p2 p1)

= Sg(h2 h1)

= Shg

= Vg


8

, .


8

8.

8.2. .

(1707 - 1783)

, , , .

32 .

(1736 - 1813)


8

, .


8

v

v

v

( ; , ), .


8

, :

, . , .


8

v2

v1

v2dt

v1dt

. , .

dV2

S1

S2

dV1

dt :

dm1=dm2 ;

1 dV1 = 2 dV2.

, :

, dt :

dV = S . v dt ;

v S = const

..1 S1 v1dt = 2 S2 v2dt .

-

(=const):v S = const


8

8.

8.3. .

. (1700-1782)


8

l

l

.

:

A = E


8

A = E

. 2 , :

, :

- .

, :


8

-

A = E

, m, :

:

(= const):


8

d3

d2

d1

v1

v2

v3

v S = const

vd 2 = const

= const :

d1>d2>d3,

v1<v2<v3

:

p1 > p2 > p3


8

8.

8.4. .

. (1608-1647)


8

1

2

1

2

.

:

:

, .

:

:

-


8

8.

8.5. .

.


8

2

1

()

1 2:

v

p= gH+ 0

.


8

2

1

:

:

v


8

.

- :

p= gH+ 0

- :

v

:

:


8

, .

, .


8


8


8

8.

8.6.

..

(1847 - 1921)


8

v1

v2

( ).

1

2

, - . .. , :

v1 > v2 .

, , :

:

p1 < p2;

( , , ).


8

v1

v2

F

1

2

v1 > v2 ,

p1 < p2.

F = <p2 p1> . S,

:

<p1 p2> ,

S , .. .


8

, .


8

, .


8

, .


8

X ;

Y ;

R ;

.. ( ) , .


8

:

S ;

;

.


8


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