Bystander behaviour in the context of workplace bullying: The influence of workplace friendship and managerialist HRM*. Premilla D’Cruz, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Organizational Behaviour, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad
Premilla D’Cruz, Ph.D.,
Associate Professor, Organizational Behaviour,
Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad
*Please see D’Cruz & Noronha, Employee Relations, Vol.3, Issue 3, 2011 for the full length paper
Workplace bullying is defined as subtle and/or obvious negative behaviours embodying aggression, hostility, intimidation and harm, characterized by repetition and persistence, displayed by an individual and/or group to another individual and/or group at work in the context of an existing or evolving unequal power relationship (Adapted from Einarsen, Hoel, Zapf & Cooper, 2011a; Hoel & Beale, 2006; Tracy, Lutgen-Sandvik & Alberts, 2006).
Interpersonal versus organizational levels of analysis
Other forms of harassment
The essential hallmarks of workplace bullying that distinguish it from other negative workplace behaviours are:
persistence including frequency and duration,
power disparity, and
intent (Einarsen, 2000; Einarsen et al, 2011a; Keashly & Harvey, 2004 & 2006; Lewis et al, 2008; Lutgen-Sandvik, 2005; Zapf & Einarsen, 2005).
Personal bullying - making insulting remarks, excessive teasing, spreading gossip or rumours, persistent criticism, playing practical jokes and intimidation
Work-related bullying - giving unreasonable deadlines or unmanageable workloads, excessive monitoring of work, or assigning meaningless tasks or even no tasks (Einarsen & Hoel, 2001)
a critical role in influencing bullying evolution and outcomes