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Joos, Plattner, Stocker, Körtzinger, and Wallace (2003). EOS 84 , 197-204. PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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WP10. The motivation. Joos, Plattner, Stocker, Körtzinger, and Wallace (2003). EOS 84 , 197-204. WP10. The technological situation. Electrochemical sensor (Seabird SBE 43/IDO). Optode sensor (Aanderaa 3830). Principle : Clark-type polarographic membrane sensor. Principle :

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Joos, Plattner, Stocker, Körtzinger, and Wallace (2003). EOS 84 , 197-204.

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Joos plattner stocker k rtzinger and wallace 2003 eos 84 197 204

WP10

The motivation

Joos, Plattner, Stocker, Körtzinger, and Wallace (2003). EOS84, 197-204.


Joos plattner stocker k rtzinger and wallace 2003 eos 84 197 204

WP10

The technological situation

Electrochemical

sensor

(Seabird SBE 43/IDO)

Optode sensor

(Aanderaa 3830)

Principle:

Clark-type polarographic membrane sensor

Principle:

Life time based dynamic fluorescence quenching

Measurement range:

0-120% of surface saturation

(0-500 µM)

Precision:

<1 µM (0.4%)

Initial accuracy:

8 µM or 5% (whichever is greater)

Response time:

25 s (e-folding time)

Measurement range:

120% of surface saturation

Initial accuracy:

2% of saturation

Response time:

6 s (e-folding time)

UW floats

(S. Riser)


Joos plattner stocker k rtzinger and wallace 2003 eos 84 197 204

WP10

The technological situation

Körtzinger et al. (2005). High-quality oxygen measurements from profiling floats: A promising new technique.

J. Atm. Ocean. Techn.22, 302-308.

Drift check possible

through air measurements

O2 = 295.0 ± 0.7 µmol/L

High long-term stability

Tengberg, Körtzinger et al. (2006). Evaluation of a life time based optode to measure oxygen in aquatic systems.

Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods4, 7-17.


Joos plattner stocker k rtzinger and wallace 2003 eos 84 197 204

quasi-stationary float

WP10

The science showcase

Körtzinger et al. (2004). The ocean takes a deep breath. Science,306, 1337.


Joos plattner stocker k rtzinger and wallace 2003 eos 84 197 204

WP10

The technological development

PROVOR-DO

PROVOR-CarboOcean

PIC sensor

  • November 2006: Delivery of 2 prototype floats from MARTEC company

  • Nov./Dec. 2006: Testing of floats (vibration, tank, basin) at IFREMER

  • February 2007: Deployment during R/V Poseidon Cruise 348 by IFM-GEOMAR north of the Cape Verde archipelago

  • February 2008: field study with deployment of 4 floats (all still active in Oct. 2009)

  • March 2007: Delivery of prototype 2 floats from MARTEC company

  • Spring 2007: Testing of floats (vibration, tank, basin) at IFREMER

  • Spring/summer 2007: Sea trials of floats

  • February 2009: field study with deployment of 2 floats (77 and 90 profiles, resp.)

Oxygen sensor

Oxygen sensor


Joos plattner stocker k rtzinger and wallace 2003 eos 84 197 204

WP10

The field experiment

 Final proof-of-concept field experiment using 6 newly developed oxygen floats is successfully running since Feb. 2008

  • All four PROVOR CTS3 DO float still active after 73-83 profiles

  • PROVCARBON float stopped after 77 and 90 profiles, resp.

  • Evaluation of field experiment data ongoing

PROVCARBON

PROVOR CTS3 DO


Joos plattner stocker k rtzinger and wallace 2003 eos 84 197 204

WP10

The scientific potential of an ARGO O2 observatory

  • Example: 90 profiles by float WMO #6900632 showing upwelling dynamics off Mauritania

Sub-surface respiration of organic matter produced in upwelled waters

active coastal

upwelling of low-oxygen waters

Oxygen time-series


Joos plattner stocker k rtzinger and wallace 2003 eos 84 197 204

WP10

The scientific potential of an ARGO O2 observatory

Estimation of the wind speed dependence of the gas transfer coefficient (k660) from three years of data in the Labrador Sea convection region

Kihm and Körtzinger, in prep.


Joos plattner stocker k rtzinger and wallace 2003 eos 84 197 204

WP10

The scientific potential of an ARGO O2 observatory

2003

2004

2005

Estimation of sub-surface oxygen utilization rates from three years of data in the Labrador Sea convection region

Kihm and Körtzinger, in prep.


Joos plattner stocker k rtzinger and wallace 2003 eos 84 197 204

WP10

The emerging global picture of O2 trends

Keeling, Körtzinger, and Gruber (2010). Ocean deoxygenation in a warming World. Annual Review of Marine Science.2, in press.


Joos plattner stocker k rtzinger and wallace 2003 eos 84 197 204

The latest OMZ trends ...


Joos plattner stocker k rtzinger and wallace 2003 eos 84 197 204

Introduction

Methods

Results

Caveats/closing thoughts

The present ocean

The future ocean

Long-term changes

Model vs. observations: A16N

Johnson et al. (2007)

  • Simulated and observed decadal variability are of similar order

  • Internal variability of a specific year is up to 20 μmol/kg

  • Observed O2-decrease from 1993 and 2003 is 30 μmol/kg

  • Simulated internal varia-bility is up to 45 μmol/kg

  • Impact of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption is negligible

Frölicher et al. (2009, GBC)


Joos plattner stocker k rtzinger and wallace 2003 eos 84 197 204

Introduction

Methods

Results

Caveats/closing thoughts

The present ocean

The future ocean

Long-term changes

Regional maximum O2 decrease/increase

  • Large local O2-decrease in thermocline of the North Pacific and the Southern Ocean (due to reduced air-sea gas exchange and reduced ventilation, partly compensated by biological processes)

  • O2-decrease in deep North Atlantic (more efficient PO4 utilization due to lower ventilation)

  • O2-increase in tropical thermocline (large decrea-se in export production, possibly reduction in water mass ages)

Depth

Depth

Frölicher et al. (2009, GBC)


Joos plattner stocker k rtzinger and wallace 2003 eos 84 197 204

Introduction

Methods

Results

Caveats/closing thoughts

The present ocean

The future ocean

Long-term changes

Global decrease in dissolved oxygen

  • Total O2 content is projected to decrease by 5.9 Pmol (2.6%) by year 2100.

  • Solubility-driven changes are responsible for at least 50% of the total decrease.

  • Additional O2 loss resulting from change in ocean circulation and biology

solubility-driven

stratficiation

Frölicher et al. (2009, GBC)


Joos plattner stocker k rtzinger and wallace 2003 eos 84 197 204

WP10

The BGC community is starting to embrace ARGO

Johnson, K.S., W.M. Berelson, E.S. Boss, Z. Chase, H. Claustre, S.R. Emerson, N. Gruber, A. Körtzinger, M.J. Perry, and S.C. Riser (2009). Observing biogeochemical cycles at global scales with profiling floats and gliders: prospects for a global array, Oceanography, 22, 217-225.


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