College Students Can Complete Their Reading on Time and with In-Depth Learning and Engagement—
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 41

College Students Struggle to Complete Their Reading Assignments PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 75 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

College Students Can Complete Their Reading on Time and with In-Depth Learning and Engagement— If They Know How Marné B . Isakson, Ph.D. Richard L. Isakson, Ph.D. [email protected] 801-377-5234 College Reading and Learning Association Boston, November 8, 2013.

Download Presentation

College Students Struggle to Complete Their Reading Assignments

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


College students struggle to complete their reading assignments

College Students Can Complete Their Reading on Time and with In-Depth Learning and Engagement—If They Know HowMarné B. Isakson, Ph.D. Richard L. Isakson, Ph.D. [email protected] Reading and Learning AssociationBoston, November 8, 2013


College students struggle to complete their reading assignments

College Students Struggle to Complete Their Reading Assignments

College students complete their reading assignments only about 30% of the time. (Burchfield & Sappington, 2000; Clump, Bauer & Bradley, 2004; Hobson, 2004)

Why is this?


College students struggle to complete their reading assignments

Many reasons can explain this.

Our experience, review of literature, and research in working with college students in counseling settings and in teaching reading courses suggest a strong reason: They do not know how.

Many college students lack the reading abilities and confidence to read their challenging texts in a timely way, with good comprehension, engagement and in-depth learning.


College students struggle to complete their reading assignments

“Many of today’s students are inexperienced readers, overwhelmed by the density of their college textbooks and baffled by the strangeness and complexity of primary sources and by their unfamiliarity with academic discourse. Armed with a yellow highlighter but with no apparent strategy for using it and hampered by lack of knowledge of how skilled readers actually go about reading, our students often feel overwhelmed by college reading assignments”

Bean, J. (2011). Engaging Ideas, 2nd ed., p. 161


So what do they need to learn to read academic texts well

So, what do they need to learn to read academic texts well?

Searched the literature.

Drew on Marne’s 30 years of teaching struggling secondary readers.

Did two studies of our own:

What do college students do to read challenging texts?

What do professors do to read their challenging texts?


College readers need to improve in these areas

College Readers Need to Improve in TheseAreas:

  • Metacognitive awarenesswhile reading so they monitor understanding, regulate the acts of reading, and evaluate the adequacy of their understanding.

  • Knowledge of strategies—the declarative, procedural, and conditional knowledge of options to maximize learning from each unique reading situation.

  • Engagement born of curiosity, connection, imagination, and confidence to confront the unknown.

  • Flexible reading raterealizing when to read faster and when to read closely.


A solution

A Solution:

A course to improve academic reading:

Advanced Reading Strategies

for College Success

But, does this course actually improve students’ reading abilities, attitudes, and confidence?


The course

The Course

Three versions of the course:

  • Advanced Reading Strategies for College Success—80 min.

  • Advanced Reading Strategies for College Success: Flipped Classroom Model—50 min.

  • Surviving College Reading—50 min.


The course1

The Course

  • 2 credit elective course

  • 28 reading strategies and drills to speed up academic reading taught

  • Designed to help students read their academic texts in a timely manner with metacognitive awareness, engage-ment, critical and creative thinking, and deep learning.

  • Strategy workshop with discussion, demonstration, coached practice, integrated speeding up lab, and debriefing.

  • Materials : handbook teaches the strategies, ThinkSheets guides the process plus reflective record-keeping charts, video and animated ppt demonstrations, assessments.


College students struggle to complete their reading assignments

PRINCIPLES and Strategies for Academic ReadingFRAMEWORK for Advanced Reading Strategies for College SuccessSupporting Self Before, During, and After Reading Difficult Academic TextsLAYERED READING p. 29 SQ4R p. 31, Mindful Reading p. 35

BEFORE

Be a Prepared Reader

  • PREVIEW & BUILD ANTICIPATIONp.45

  • Skeleton p.47

  • T.H.I.E.V.V.E.S.

  • with Snatches p. 51

  • SET PURPOSE p. 55

  • Launch p.56

  • DO OVERVIEW READING p. 62

  • Superficial Reading p. 63

  • Quick Coding p. 63

  • ACTIVATE PRIOR KNOWLEDGE &

  • BUILD SCHEMA p. 68

  • KWL & The More You Know p. 70

DURING

Be a Demanding Reader

SYNTHESIZE ALONG THE WAY p.77

Download Patterns: Slash, Linear,

Web, Pictorial & Random p.79

Telegram p.83

ASK QUESTIONS p.88

Prof’s Questions p.89

My Questions p.91

CONNECT THE TEXT p.98

That Reminds Me p.99

MARK THE TEXT p. 104

Mindful Coding p. 105

INFER/PREDICT p. 112

Author on My Shoulder p.113

DETERMINE IMPORTANCE p.118

Target, Track, & Defend Main Pointsp.119

MONITOR UNDERSTANDING & FIX-UP p.124

MICER: Monitor, Identify, Creatively

Explore & Act, Reflect p.125

INTERPRET GRAPHICS p.133

Visual & Technical Reading p.134

AFTER

Be a Transformed Reader

CHECK PURPOSES p.143

Met Purpose? p.144

REVIEW p.146

Cover & Recite p.147

Postviewp.150

Create a Concept Map p.151

SYNTHESIZE—PARTS TO WHOLE p.168

Make an Abstract p.169

EXPLAINp.174

Be the Teacher p.175

ANALYZE—WHOLE TO PARTS p.178

Relate the Parts p.179

EXPAND CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE p.186

Probe Author’s Mind p.189

Probe My Mind p.195

GENERATE NEW THINKING p.199

New Questions/New Thoughts p.200

Also taught:

“What is Reading?” p.15

Speeding Up Academic Reading p. 241

Listed after each principle and strategy is the page number of its location in the handbook.

Additional Strategies for the Right Occasion

4x4 Download p. 209 Research Readingp. 221

Come to Terms p. 215 Exam Reading p. 233

Developed by Marne B. Isakson, Ph.D.,

7/12/2013 version


College students struggle to complete their reading assignments

Based on research conducted on the outcomes of our college reading course, we make four claims:

  • Expert reader strategies can guide the development of a college reading course.

  • Students can become metacognitively aware, purposeful readers of academic texts and can learn to integrate and modify expert-reader strategies to meet their reading purposes.

  • Students who once read everything at the same plodding rate can become highly flexible with their reading rate, depending on the layer of reading they are in and their purpose for reading any particular segment of text.

  • A one semester course can have a significant beneficial impact on the reading abilities of college students, their rates, strategic decision-making in the process of reading, and their attitudes toward academic reading.


Has such a course helped students read better

Has such a course helped students read better?

Research to Measure Desired Outcomes of the Reading Course:

Participants

Students who completed the advanced reading strategies course.

Data

Gathered across eight semesters

Five Pre-post assessments—Quantitative data

One Performance Assessment—Qualitative data

Two Surveys of students’ perceptions of the effects of learning expert-reader strategies for reading their academic texts—Qualitative data

Design

An evaluation study with no control group

Compared the pre-post measures with quantitative analyses

Analyzed their self-reports and performance assessments with qualitative procedures


Research question

Research Question

“To what degree do students taking a course in advanced reading strategies improve in comprehension, reading rate, metacognitive awareness, and attitudes towards college reading?”


The pretest posttest measures

The Pretest-Posttest Measures

We analyzed pre-post test scores for five measuresrelated to our desired outcomes:

  • Nelson-Denny Reading Test- Comprehension subtest (Brown, Fishco, & Hanna, 1993)

  • Nelson-Denny Reading Test- Rate measure (Ibid.)

  • Line Read Rate, an informal measure to assess reading rate on a narrative text

  • Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI) (Mokhtari & Reichard, 2002)

  • College Student Attitudes toward Reading (Isakson, 2010, unpublished survey).


Results of nelson denny comprehension

Results of Nelson-Denny Comprehension

Dependent Variable = Scale Score on Comprehension

N = 417

Pretest Mean = 228.51, SD 16.19

Posttest Mean = 231.74, SD 11.81

Mean Difference = 3.23

t = 4.82, p < .000, d = .23


Measure of nelson denny rate

Measure of Nelson-Denny Rate

Dependent Variable = Scale Score on Rate

N = 417

Pretest Mean = 208.37, SD = 24.71

Posttest Mean = 275.88, SD = 32.28

Mean Difference = 67.51

t = 42.70, p < .000, d = 1.52


Measure of reading rate line read rate

Measure of Reading Rate: Line Read Rate

Dependent Variable = Lines read in one minute

N = 400

Pretest Mean = 25.44, SD = 10.20

Posttest Mean = 55.52, SD = 20.78

Mean Difference = 30.09

t = 31.82, p < .000, d = 1.35


Increased metacognitive awareness

Increased Metacognitive Awareness

Metacognitive awareness involves monitoring, controlling, and evaluating your thinking processesto accomplish a desired task.

It is the overarching, key concept for improving one’s reading, especially academic reading.


College students struggle to complete their reading assignments

“To use strategies effectively, readers need metacognitive knowledge, the understanding of which strategic procedures are appropriate to apply in what circumstances” (Fox, 2009, p. 200).

If readers are metacognitively aware, they concern themselves both with what the author is trying to help them understand and with what their options are to process the information (McNeil, 1992).

Highly skilled, accomplished readers use specific metacognitive strategies before, during, and after reading to enhance their understanding of texts (Pressley &Afflerbach, 1995).


Measure of metacognitive awareness

Measure of Metacognitive Awareness

Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI) (Mokhtari & Reichard, 2002)

A self-report for assessing students’ increased metacognitive awareness and strategy use while reading.

The authors of the MARSI reported data showing that better readers are more metacognitively aware and make more use of reading strategies than less proficient readers.


Measure of metacognitive awareness1

Measure of Metacognitive Awareness

We chose to use the MARSI to see if our students increased awareness of their need for setting purpose, monitoring understanding, and identifying strategies to use to enhance their learning while reading college texts. It has three subcategories: global, problem-solving, and support.

Sample Items

Sample Items

The MARSI is comprised of a list of 30 statements on a Likert scale from 1 (never or almost never) to 5 (always or almost always).


Results of marsi global reading strategies

Results of MARSI Global Reading Strategies

Global Reading Strategies: General strategies that prepare the reader beforereading such as setting a purpose for reading and previewing the text.

Dependent Variable = Mean rating on items comprising Global Reading Strategies category

N = 417

Pretest Mean = 2.86, SD = .58

Posttest Mean = 3.96, SD = .52

Mean Difference = 1.10

t = 34.98, p < .000, d = 1.41

MARSI Global change: Our students started at medium and ended very high

Key: 3.5 or higher= high; 2.5 - 3.4= medium; 2.4 or lower= low


Results of marsi problem solving strategies

Results of MARSI Problem-Solving Strategies

Problem-Solving Strategies: strategies focused on problem-solving or fixing-up comprehension problems during reading.

Dependent Variable = Mean rating on items comprising Problem-Solving Strategies category

N = 417

Pretest Mean = 3.44, SD = .59

Posttest Mean = 4.02, SD = .49

Mean Difference = .58

t = 19.07, p < .000, d = .95

MARSI Problem-Solving change: Our students started at medium and ended very high

Key: 3.5 or higher= high; 2.5 - 3.4= medium; 2.4 or lower= low


Results of marsi support reading strategies

Results of MARSI Support Reading Strategies

Support Reading Strategies: Activities such as taking notes while reading, discussing the reading with others, or using external support tools such as dictionaries or reference materials.

Dependent Variable = Mean rating on items comprising Support Reading Strategies category

N = 417

Pretest Mean = 2.39, SD = .60

Posttest Mean = 3.34, SD = .60

Mean Difference= .95

t = 30.07, p < .000, d = 1.24

MARSI Support change: Our students started low and ended medium

Key: 3.5 or higher= high; 2.5 - 3.4= medium; 2.4 or lower= low


Results of marsi overall

Results of MARSI Overall

Overall Reading Strategies: Combines scores for the three subscales.

Dependent Variable = Mean rating across all 30 items on MARSI

N = 417

Pretest Mean = 2.89, SD = .53

Posttest Mean = 3.80, SD = .45

Mean Difference = .91

t = 33.84, p < .000, d = 1.35

MARSI Overall change: Our students started at medium and ended very high

Key: 3.5 or higher= high; 2.5 - 3.4= medium; 2.4 or lower= low


Measure of attitudes toward reading

Measure of Attitudes toward Reading

Smith (1990) defines reading attitude as: “…a state of mind, accompanied by feelings and emotions, that makes reading more or less probable” (p.215).

With Smith’s definition in mind, we recognized an important need to assess students’ attitudes toward reading and this became a critical outcome of our advanced reading course.


Measure of attitudes toward reading1

Measure of Attitudes toward Reading

College Student Attitudes toward Reading (Isakson, 2010, unpublished survey).

  • Could not find a college reading attitude scale that met our needs

  • Developed our own survey

  • Created items that tapped into college students’ attitudes about themselves as readers and how they feel about reading their college assignments.

  • Consists of ten items, eight stated positively and two items that are stated negatively.


College student attitudes toward reading

College Student Attitudes toward Reading

A Sample

When I receive a college reading assignment, I am able to accomplish the reading efficiently and on time.

5. Strongly agree4. Agree3. Neutral2. Disagree1. Strongly disagree

As I approach a college reading assignment, I am confident that I will comprehend the important information in the text.

5. Strongly agree4. Agree3. Neutral2. Disagree1. Strongly disagree

I usually procrastinate or put off college reading assignments, not wanting to get started.

5. Strongly agree4. Agree3. Neutral2. Disagree1. Strongly disagree

I welcome the challenge of a difficult college reading assignment because I feel that I can handle it.

5. Strongly agree4. Agree3. Neutral2. Disagree1. Strongly disagree


Results of pre post comparison of college student attitudes toward reading

Results of Pre-Post Comparison of “College Student Attitudes toward Reading”

Dependent Variable = Composite rating on 10 items with a rating scale ranging from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree)

Scores range from 10 to 50.

N = 417

Pretest Mean = 29.98, SD = 5.63

Posttest Mean= 39.01, SD = 5.39

Mean Difference = 9.03

t = 28.36, p > .000, d = 1.27


Survey results

Survey Results

Effects Survey

  • Explores students’ perceptions of the various ways the advanced reading course may have influenced their reading in their other college courses

  • Administered anonymously to students at the end of winter semester 2012 and 2013 for a total of 222 students.

  • Consists of 11 items in a Likert scale format

    A Sample

    I notice that some of the reading strategies learned in StDev 305 are helping me learn more effectively when I study:

    Strongly Agree AgreeNot Sure Disagree Strongly Disagree

    I am better able to keep up with and complete my college reading assignments because of what I have learned in StDev 305:

    Strongly Agree AgreeNot Sure Disagree Strongly Disagree


College students struggle to complete their reading assignments

Anonymous Follow-Up Survey

  • Assesses the long-term effects of the instruction on reading strategies

  • Given to former students of the advanced college reading courseone to four semesters after they had completed the course.

    Sample Items

  • I find myself using one or more of the reading strategies learned in StDev 305 in my college studies.

  • Nearly OftenHalf the Time OccasionallyAlmost

  • AlwaysNever

  • 5 4 3 2 1

  • I notice that some of the reading strategies learned in StDev 305 are helping me learn more effectively

  • when I study.

  • Strongly Agree Not Sure DisagreeStrongly

  • Agree Disagree

  • 5 4 3 2 1

  • I am better able to keep up with and complete my college reading assignments because of what I have

  • learned in StDev 305.

  • Strongly Agree Not Sure DisagreeStrongly

  • Agree Disagree

  • 5 4 3 2 1


College students struggle to complete their reading assignments

Survey results have been organized around five questions we wanted to answer about the results of the course:

  • How have students’ attitudes toward reading changed?

  • How has the course impacted completion of college reading assignments?

  • Has the course helped students to have increased confidence in their academic reading?

  • What beneficial effects of the course are seen by students?

  • Have students continued to use what they learned after completing the course?


Change in attitude about college reading

Change in Attitude about College Reading

On the Attitude Survey:

“I have always disliked reading and have to force myself to read in college.”

Pretest: 45% agreed or strongly agreed

Posttest: 13% agreed or strongly agreed

On the Effects Survey:

“I can see that my attitude toward college reading is improving because of St. Dev. 305.”

83% agreed or strongly agreed

“I am enjoying my college studies more now because of what I learned in St. Dev. 305.”

68% agreed or strongly agreed

On the Follow-Up Survey:

“My attitude toward reading, in general, has improved as a result of the course.”

84% agreed or strongly agreed


Change in completion of college reading assignments

Change in Completion of College Reading Assignments

On the Attitude Survey:

“When I receive a college reading assignment, I am able to accomplish the reading efficiently and on time.”

Pretest: 40% agreed or strongly agreed

Posttest: 90% agreed or strongly agreed

“I often procrastinate or put off college reading assignments, not wanting to get started.”

Pretest: 52% agreed or strongly agreed

Posttest: 28% agreed or strongly agreed.

On the Effects Study:

“I am better able to keep up with and complete my college reading assignments because of what I have learned in St. Dev. 305.”

83% agreed or strongly agreed


Increased confidence as a college reader

Increased Confidence as a College Reader

On the Attitude Survey:

“As I approach a college reading assignment, I am confident that I will comprehend the important information in the text.”

Pretest: 45% agreed or strongly agreed

Posttest: 91% agreed or strongly agreed

“I welcome the challenge of a difficulty college reading assignment because I feel that I can handle it.”

Pretest: 13% agreed or strongly agreed

Posttest: 56% agreed or strongly agreed

“I am confident in my abilities as a reader.”

Pretest: 69% agreed or strongly agreed

Posttest: 92% agreed or strongly agreed.

On the Follow-Up Survey:

“Because of the course, I feel more confident that I can read just about any text, no matter how difficult.”

75% agreed or strongly agreed


Beneficial use of strategies learned in the course

Beneficial Use of Strategies Learned in the Course

On the Attitude Survey: “When I am faced with a difficult college reading task, I am able to monitor my understanding and use ways of facilitating my learning from the text.”

Pretest: 24% agreed or strongly agreed

Posttest: 91% agreed or strongly agreed

“I can adjust my reading speed to fit the demands of the text and my purpose for reading.”

Pretest: 25% agreed or strongly agreed

Posttest: 94% agreed or strongly agreed

From the Follow-Up Survey: “The course has affected in positive ways my approach to reading.”

92% agreed


College students struggle to complete their reading assignments

On the Effects Survey:

“I notice that some of the reading strategies learned in St. Dev. 305 are helping me learn more effectively when I study.”

92% agreed or strongly agreed

“I can see that my understanding of what I read for college is improving because of my use of the strategies learned in St. Dev. 305.”

82% agreed or strongly agreed

“I can see that my retention of what I read for college is improving because of my use of the strategies learned in St. Dev. 305.”

72% agreed or strongly agreed

“I am seeing an increase in my quiz and test performance as a result of what I have learned in St. Dev. 305.”

55% agreed or strongly agreed

“I see that I am taking my course work for other classes more seriously- to really learn rather than just for the grade- because of what I have learned in St. Dev. 305.”

65% agreed or strongly agreed

“I find myself more engaged and thinking more deeply about the ideas and concepts in my classes because of what I have learned in St. Dev. 305.”

81% agreed or strongly agreed


Continued use of reading strategies and approaches

Continued Use of Reading Strategies and Approaches

On the Effects Survey:

“I find myself using one or more of the reading strategies learned in St. Dev. 305 in my college studies.”

88% agreed or strongly agreed

“I am able to adapt the strategies learned in St. Dev. 305 to the different reading situations I face in the other classes.”

84% agreed or strongly agreed

On the Follow-Up Survey:

“I can apply strategies I learned in the course when I encounter a text that does not make sense.”

90% agreed or strongly agreed

“I have maintained or increased my ability to comprehend academic texts and recall what I have read.”

80% agreed or strongly agreed

“I have maintained or increased my reading speed of academic texts.”

68% agreed or strongly agreed


General satisfaction with the reading course

General Satisfaction with theReading Course

From the Follow-Up Survey:

“I am glad I took the course.”

90% agreed or strong agreed

“I have recommended the course to others.”

76% agreed or strongly agreed


Conclusions

Conclusions

Based on research conducted on the outcomes of our college reading course, we conclude:

  • Students can become more metacognitively aware, purposeful readers of academic texts.

  • Students can improve their comprehension of academic texts.

  • Students can speed up their reading rate.

  • Students can improve their attitudes toward and confidence in college reading, which can benefit their completion of reading assignments.

  • Use of effective reading strategies can lead to beneficial results in one semesterof instruction.


Questions comments

QuestionsComments


  • Login