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BIATHLON PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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BIATHLON. Our group is composed by : Francisco Crespo Costillas Raúl García Quiñones Jose Ignacio Nicolás García Héctor Viñuela García. WHAT IS BIATHLON?. Biathlon is a mix of skiing and shooting, it is a winter sport, and mainly a reference in sports in Nordic countries. HISTORY.

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Francisco Crespo Costillas

Raúl García Quiñones

Jose Ignacio Nicolás García

Héctor Viñuela García

What is biathlon


  • Biathlon is a mix of skiing and shooting, it is a winter sport, and mainly a reference in sports in Nordic countries.



  • This sport has its origins in an exercise for Norwegiansoldiers.

  • Called military patrol, the combination of skiing and shooting was contested at the Olympic Winter Games in 1924.

  • During the mid-1950s, however, biathlon was introduced into the Russian and Swedish winter sport circuits.


  • The first World Championship in biathlon was held in 1958 in Austria, and then biathlon was finally included in the Olympic Games.

    Rules and equipment

  • The complete rules of biathlon are given in the official IBU rule book (see External links, below).

Facility description

Facility Description

  • Biathlon competitions are conducted at a facility that has a central stadium area surrounded.

  • The stadium area consists of the shooting range normally with 30 targets, the start and finish zones including a mass start area, the penalty loop, the technical building, ski test slope, spectator areas and other necessary infrastructure.

  • The shooting range is divided into lanes of 2.7 to 3 m in width, with the targets placed at 50 m distance.


  • The lanes and targets are numbered from right to left starting with number 1 on the extreme right.

  • The range is divided into two parts for the Individual and Sprint competitions.

  • Course specifications are more or less demanding for the different types of competitions and are based on variations of height difference, maximum climb and total climb.


Basic concepts

  • For each shooting round, the biathlete must hit five targets; each missed target must be "atoned for" in one of three ways, depending on the competition format:

  • by skiing around a 150 metres penalty loop, typically taking 20–30 seconds for top-level biathletes to complete.

  • by having one minute added to a skier's total time, or

  • by having to use an "extra cartridge” to finish off the target; only three such "extras" are available for each round, and a penalty loop must be made for each of the targets left standing.


  • In order to keep track of the contestants' progress and relative standing throughout a race, split times are taken at several points along the skiing track and upon finishing each shooting round. The large display screens commonly set up at biathlon arenas, as well as the information graphics shown as part of the TV picture, will typically list the split time of the fastest contestant at each intermediate point and the times and time differences to the closest runners-up.


Skiing details

  • All cross-country skiing techniques are permitted in biathlon, which means that the free technique is usually the preferred one, being the fastest.

    Shooting details

  • The biathlete carries the small bore rifle, which weighs at least 3.5 kilograms, including ammunition in magazines on his/her back.

  • The target range shooting distance is 50 metres. There are five circular targets to be hit in each shooting round. When shooting in the prone position-45 millimetres, when shooting in the standing position-115 millimetres.



  • There are different types of events in biathlon:

    • Individual

    • Sprint

    • Pursuit

    • Relay

    • mass start

      (both male and female category)

The individual competition

The individual Competition

  • ThisisthetraditionalBiathloncompetition. The Individual has thelongestskiingdistance of allBiathloncompetitions and has fourbouts of shootingforallclasses of competitors. The Individual competitiontakesabout 55 minutes to compete forthebestcompetitors. Menstartbyskiing 4 km and thenshooting, continuingthesequenceuntiltheyhaveshotfour times.

    Womengenerally do thesame, butwith 3 km skiloopsfortheir 15 km competition.



  • The women's race is 7.5 km and 10 male. They starts at intervals of 30 seconds and give three laps on a circuit. They have to perform two series of shots, first standing and then lying. For every failure, must make a round of additional penalty of 150 meters. The winner is the best time.



  • Women do 10 km and men 12.5. The start is graded according to the computation times have been obtained in the sprint. Participants have four stops to shoot at a target where they need to make five targets. For every missed shot, athletes must make a penalty turn on a circuit of 150 meters prepared for this purpose and then continue.

The relay competition

The Relay Competition

  • We have four runners per team, running each of the participants in men's 7.5 km and 6 female. The proof relievers after the onset of each team. Each runner has to make two stops shooting, each on five targets for those with eight bullets. For every white must complete a tour of penalty of 150 meters and then continue the test.

The mass start competition

The Mass Start Competition

  • This is the most recent and first included in the 2006 Winter Olympics. The male test is 15 km and female 12.5. In this test, all participants come together and there are four fire stations with five targets each, two to shoot lying and two standing. As in the sprint race for each failure must travel 150 meters over a penalty. So at the Olympic Games is held in the last days.



  • If we´ll want practiced biathlon, we need materials like:

    • Gloves


  • Skiboots


  • Skisuit


  • Skistick


  • Skis


  • Skigoggles



  • There are five targets at each point shooting, electronic or mechanical. Measuring 45 mm. in diameter at the lying position and 155 mm. on standing.

  • Lying takes about 30 seconds to shoot and standing about 20 seconds. Lying, elbow to touch the ground but not rely on the hip.



The rifle is designed for Biathlon with an action that is a variation of bolt or lever action, .22 inch in caliber, with a minimum weight of 3.5 kg, and equipped with a shooting sling.



  • Usually there are 30 streets for the shot to make it stand 15 and 15 for lying position. The target is 50 meters.

  • The small-caliber rifle is 5.6 mm. And the minimum pressure is 500 grams trier. Its weight including all accessories, except ammunition, can not be less than 3.5 kg. The ammunition must be of lead or similar material.


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